Features vaccination of apple trees at home
Vaccination of an apple tree is a term that many have heard of, but often gardeners believe that this procedure is available only to specialists with extensive experience in gardening. After reading our material, you will find out that this is not so, and that everyone can carry out this manipulation. Let's understand the essence of the process, methods and technology of its implementation, and also try to consider possible errors.
Why plant an apple tree
Vaccination is the union of a tree with another representative of the flora or another variety of apple trees for the purpose of reproduction.
Vaccination is needed in order to:
- Propagate Apple Tree. Vaccination will allow you to get a tree of the desired variety on another. So you can grow a new variety without buying a seedling, just take the material for vaccination from friends who grow it.
- Get a crop fast. An unvaccinated apple tree gives its first crop no earlier than 5 years later (on average, 10-15 years later), and a grafted apple tree will be produced in the 2nd or 3rd year.
- Fortify the tree. By planting a variety with improved characteristics of frost resistance or resistance to diseases and pests, it is possible to improve these indicators in the cultivated tree.
- Adapt to environmental conditions. If you plan to grow a variety intended for another region or conditions, you can plant it with the variety that is successfully grown in this area.
- So that the apple tree meets certain parameters: the beginning of fruiting, ripening, crop quality, etc. Thus, a home variety can be grafted to the wild.
- So that the apple tree takes the desired shape: dwarf, tall, with a high or low stem, etc.
- Replace with a different grade. If for some reason the cultivated variety does not satisfy you, you can grow another on the same tree without wasting time planting and growing a seedling.
- Save space. Through vaccination, it is possible to cultivate several varieties of apples on 1 tree.
- Cure or rejuvenate a tree. A tree damaged due to adverse circumstances can be cured through re-vaccination. Do the same with aged apple trees.
Important! Vaccination will achieve its goal only if the cambium of the scion and the stock is tightly connected.
To understand the process, you need to study its terminology:
- Rootstock - representative of the plant world to which they are vaccinated (base).
- Privoy - representative of the plant world, which is attached (grafted) to the stock.
- Cambium - 1 of the inner layers of tissue in the roots or stems, due to which the plant becomes thicker.
- Re-grafting - re-vaccination of old apple trees for rejuvenation, as well as to improve several characteristics of the variety.
- Stamp - the trunk of the apple tree between the ground and the lower branch.
- To steal - to instill.
- Copulation and budding - vaccination methods (will be discussed in more detail below).
Types of vaccinations of apple trees in spring
In the spring, they use the following vaccination methods:
- into an incision;
- "For the bark";
- copulation (with tongue or simple);
- in the cleavage;
- “Eye” (budding);
If the diameter of the connected parts of the trees is very different, it is possible to resort to a method in an incision - this is a method that provides that the scion and stock are fused into a side incision on the stock of the stock.
Way beyond the bark
The method of grafting over the bark provides for this type of connection when the cuttings of the desired variety are inserted into the cut bark of the tree to which they are grafted.With this technique, the vaccination survives more successfully, and it is also suitable for inexperienced gardeners because of its simplicity.
Video: Vaccination of apple trees
Copy with tongue
Copulation is a vaccination method, which provides that the branches of the scion and rootstock are fused, and requiring that they be of the same diameter (2.5–5 cm). As a rule, the desired diameter of the apple tree is reached at one or two years of age. Copying with the tongue provides for this type of connection, when a wedge-shaped tip is formed on the scion, and a V-shaped cut on the stock, after which the scion is inserted into the stock.
Into the cleavage
The method of splitting is suitable only if the rootstock is at least 3-6 years old, and its trunk or branch to which the scion will be attached is at least 2 cm in diameter. With this method, the scion stalk is pushed into a split (split) on the trunk or in the skeletal branch of the stock. In this way, it is allowed to attach up to 4 cuttings, if the stock is quite thick - 2 times thicker than the scion.
The best scion is cut from young abundantly fruiting apple trees aged 3 to 10 years
The implantation method is used when the scion and stock are of identical diameter. At the same time, oblique sections of the scion and stock are connected.
Did you know? The ancient Romans and Greeks loved to experiment with vaccinations: they grew pears on ash, roses — on oak, orange — on a nut.
Eye vaccination and budding
“Peephole” is 1 kidney (shoot primordium) with a thin layer of wood. Cowling is a vaccination technique, which provides that the “peephole” of the 1st grade (graft) is grafted onto another (stock). It is used for the propagation of apple trees: a kidney of the desired variety is grafted into a root neck or higher to an annual or two-year-old seedling. If the vaccination is successful, in the coming spring an escape will begin to develop from the “eye”. "Eyes" are cut only from well-developed shoots.
This method is used when juices are actively moving in the tree. In the case of vaccination in the spring, last year’s bud is used, which will begin to grow this year; in the case of vaccination in the summer, this year’s bud is used to start growing in the spring.The best way in the summer is budding, that is, vaccination with a sleeping kidney formed over the past month of the season
For this reason, distinguish:
- Germination with a germinating kidney (sprouting "eye") - this is the name for the budding that is practiced in the spring.
- Vaccination with a sleeping kidney (sleeping "eye") is a budding that is practiced in the summer.
Did you know? Some experimenters tried to grow an apple tree on poplar, maple and aspen, and Ivan Michurin managed to grow a pear on a lemon.
The vaccine "bridge"
Damaged by rodents, frosts, the sun, an old or sick apple tree is grafted with the “bridge” method - for this, the graft stalk is attached from both ends under the rootstock bark.
When to get vaccinated: timing
You can plant an apple tree:
- In the spring - before the appearance of leaves and flowers. This time is considered the best and does not require special skill.
- In summer - not all methods are suitable for summer vaccination.
- Fall - In late September and early October, only young stocks are suitable for vaccination. It is necessary to ensure that the temperature does not fall below + 15 ° C.
- In winter - cuttings should be cut in cold weather and adhere to a temperature of 0 ° C during storage. 14 days before the event, bring stock to the heat, after 11 days - graft cuttings. After no more than 20 days after the procedure, landing in an open area is carried out. Winter vaccination is also called desktop vaccination.
Important! In the process of grafting, try less contact with the slices, thoroughly clean the branches and trunks before cutting, treat the slices with garden var.
The optimal timing for different methods of vaccination are:
- Into the notch - all year round, except July and August, but preferably in late May and early June.
- Over bark - the beginning of March in regions with a warm climate, the end of March or the beginning of April - in other regions.
- Copulation - spring, autumn or winter (for table vaccination).
- Into the cleavage - March-April, July-August or September-October (in regions with a warm climate).
- Implantation - Spring.
- Budding - in the spring, at the moment of leaf blooming (for regions with a warm climate), or in the summer, at the turn of the second and third summer months. The best period is considered summer.
- The bridge - May.
Vaccination without strapping does not protect weak shoots from infections and parasites
Tools and materials
For the procedure you will need:
- special knife - copulating or budding;
- garden shears (secateurs not recommended);
- delimbers (for thick branches);
- pencil sharpener;
- harness - bast, twine, polyethylene;
- garden var (garden putty) - a viscous, water-insoluble substance for processing plant slices.
Tools before surgery must be sharpened well, sanitized with alcohol or calcined over a fire
Rules for choosing graft and stock
You must choose a priva so that it:
- gave fruits of high quality;
- was high yielding;
- fruiting for at least 2 years.
The stock should be chosen so that it:
- It was compatible with the scion;
- tolerated frost well;
- had no special requirements for high or low humidity;
- had a well-developed root system;
- successfully grown in this region.
You can plant different varieties of apple trees, as well as an apple tree on hawthorn, aronia or aronia, viburnum, quince, pear or cotoneaster. However, on other types of trees, vaccinations grow worse and do not live long.
How to prepare and save cuttings for grafting an apple tree
Harvesting cuttings for scion according to the following rules:
- Branches for harvesting can not be younger than 1 year.
- They should not show signs of disease or other damage.
- For cuttings, segments with 3-4 kidneys are selected.
- More reliable results are obtained from cuttings cut from the middle of the branch.
- High-quality cuttings are obtained if they are prepared in winter at a temperature of -10 ° C.
- The top of the handle is shortened obliquely at the level of the upper “eye”, the lower end is cut as required with this method of inoculation.
- The cuttings are stored in an unheated room at a temperature of -2 ° C, the ends are wrapped in a damp rag or sawdust. They can also be stored in a snowdrift, wrapped with sawdust or peat.
Video: Harvesting cuttings for vaccination
Immediate apple grafting technology
What does the notch grafting technology look like:
- Cut the lateral part of the rootstock trunk into 1/3 of its diameter at an oblique angle, remove the bark in this place. The depth of cut is observed about 20 cm.
- At the end of the scion graft from opposite sides, make oblique sections. In this case, the sides should be of different lengths so that the tip is oblique.
- The depth of cut of the stock and the length of the wedge of the scion should coincide.
- Insert the cutting into the rootstock section with the short side so that its bark is flush with the rootstock bark.
The technology for vaccination for bark looks like this:
- On a stock, make an even cut, smooth it.
- Cut the bark into a stock 4 cm long and slightly separate its edges from the wood with a blunt object. If the thickness of the stock allows, up to 4 such slots can be made to plant more cuttings.
- Cut the stalk 10-15 cm long from the variety that they want to receive, choosing the part where there are at least 2 well-developed buds.
- At the end of the scion, make an oblique section 4 cm long to form an acute angle.
- Insert the sharp end of the scion into the cut on the rootstock bark so that the upper part of the scion cut protrudes 1–2 mm above the even cut of the stock. Slice the scion tightly to the rootstock.
The technology of copying with the tongue includes the following sequence:
- On the graft cuttings, cut off the tip with a wedge - make straight and oblique slices with a wedge from opposite sides so that in the center there is a tongue 1/3 of its thickness.
- On the scion branch, make a cut perpendicularly or in the form of a Latin letter V of a suitable size.
- Insert the scion into the cut of the stock.
The technology of vaccination in the split provides the following procedure:
- On a stem or skeletal branch of the stock, make a split - cut, and then split to a depth of 5 cm with an ax and insert a wedge. Cut 1 time if 1-2 grafts are grafted, or 2 times perpendicular to each other if 4 grafts are grafted.
- The ends of the cuttings form a wedge.
- Insert the cuttings into the split.
The technology of the implantation procedure looks like this:
- On a rootstock branch, which grows at a distance of 20 cm from the ground, make an oblique cut.
- Form the lower end of the handle at the same angle.
- Join both slices to create 1 branch.
The technology for conducting budding includes the following steps:
- Cut off the “eye” from the scion along with a thin layer of tissue around it on the day of manipulation.
- Make a cut in the form of the letter T on the stem of the stock and slightly bend the edges.
- Attach the “eye” with a bast, shoving it into the incision under the rootstock bark.
- Wait for the growth of the escape from the kidney.
Casing: 1 - T-shaped incision on the stock; 2 - raised crust at the section; 3 — a shield cut off from the handle; 4 - the reverse side of the flap; 5 - the shield is inserted into a T-shaped section; 6 - eyelet budding
The grafting technology “bridge” provides the following sequence:
- Scion grafts should be brought into the room to keep them warm.
- On a rootstock in places of damage to the bark, strip its remains in a circle without cutting wood.
- The length of the cuttings should slightly exceed the height of the cut.
- Remove all buds from the cuttings, form 4 cm above and below at an oblique angle so that the slices are on one side.
- On the rootstock bark, make cuts opposite each other above and below the exposed area and move them a little away from the wood.
- Insert the cuttings into the cuts, directing their cut ends to the rootstock wood - first the lower ends (tie them in a circle), and then the upper ones (also tie them in a circle).
- Cuttings need to be inserted in the direction of their growth: the lower ends are inserted into the lower part of the slice on the stock, the upper ones into its upper part.
Possible mistakes novice gardeners
The most common mistakes made by beginner gardeners are:
- dirty inventory;
- too few kidneys on the scion;
- vaccination with an already awakened kidney with the method of budding;
- the stock was not allowed to get accustomed to a new place for at least 1 year (when grafting a game or replanting in another place);
- too tight dressing or its complete absence;
- the greenhouse effect at the binding site;
- raw slices.
Grafted Tree Care
Experienced gardeners give such recommendations for caring for the apple after the grafting procedure:
- Inspect the operation site regularly.
- Periodically loosen the bandage if the scion has taken root.
- If vaccinated in the fall, do not remove the bandage for the winter, in other cases it can be removed after 2-3 months.
- After waking up several buds on the handle, cut off all branches except 1.
- If several cuttings were planted, make sure that they do not cross during the growth process, if necessary, cut them off.
- If an escape has begun to develop under the rootstock operation site, it must be cut off.
- The graft can be strengthened by tying it to the stick every 20 cm for protection.
- If after 2 weeks after surgery the scion has dried up and does not develop, remove it and cover the cut with a garden var.
- Insulate the vaccination for the winter.
Inspect the grafted graft every 20 days, remove the shoots that make their way around it and take away nutrients
In addition, it is necessary to follow standard apple care procedures - top dressing, watering, pruning.
Thus, vaccination is a good way to improve the quality of the apple tree.Even beginners can carry out such manipulation if they choose its method correctly and comply with the execution technology.