Characterization and description of varieties of dwarf apple trees
Small apple trees have gained particular popularity due to the successful combination of compactness and productivity. These varieties allow you to get aromatic fruits even in small areas, and at the same time form a fairly productive garden. The article discusses in detail the most popular weak-growing varieties of apple trees, how they differ among themselves, and how to plant and care for dwarf varieties correctly.
TOP 12 best varieties of dwarf apple trees
Today on the market there is every possible abundance of varieties of miniature apple trees. In most cases, compact hybrids are obtained by skillful formation or with the help of stock. However, for several decades there have been small fruit varieties of apple trees forming a low-growing compact tree with a height of not more than 3 m. Some of the most popular and successful varieties are considered below.
This hybrid is perfect for temperate continental climate, and also can withstand virtually any sudden temperature changes and short cold. Even after severe frostbite, the plant is able to recover instantly, which is one of the main highlights of the variety.
Candy is a fast-growing apple variety; a 1-2-year-old seedling can grow into a powerful tree capable of actively blooming and bearing fruit in just 3 years. The average height of the plant is in the range of 3-5 m, the crown of the tree is sprawling and dense, with an elongated pyramidal shape. It is formed by powerful branches with large leaves.
The fruits of this apple tree are round, with a noticeable ribbing on the surface. The peel is dense, the main color of the peel is green or yellow-green. On top of it, a blush of dark pink appears, with characteristic vertical strokes of red and a waxy coating.
The cut fruit is light beige, juicy, but dense. The taste of apples is moderate, sweet and sour, with a bright honey and candy flavor. The average crop yield is about 50 kg / plant, the weight of one fruit is in the range of 85–155 g.
- excellent taste and aroma of pulp;
- good winter hardiness of the plant;
- fruiting is plentiful and regular;
- branches are able to withstand the mass of fruits;
- the crop is characterized by a high content of antioxidants and biologically valuable substances.
- low resistance to the causative agent of scab;
- short crop storage period;
- the crop is unsuitable for long transportation;
- excessive thickening of the crown.
Did you know? The motherland of the apple tree is considered to be the foothills of Alatau (the territory of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan). In this area, to this day, a wild form of the plant grows - the Sivers apple tree, from which all modern hybrids resemble.
Melba apple tree is considered one of the oldest fruit varieties, which is actively used in horticulture to this day. This hybrid conquers gardeners with compactness, as an adult tree often does not exceed 2.5–3 m in height. The crown of the hybrid is round, broad, medium density, does not require thinning. The leaves on the shoots are pointed, oval, elongated, medium size.
Ripe round-cylindrical fruits, slightly narrowed at the base. Their peel is thin and smooth, covered with a wax coating. The skin color of all kinds of yellow-green shades. On top of the main color, a red-pink blush appears. The cut fruit is white, with pink spots, fragrant, juicy and dense. Apples are small, weighing about 140 g, with an average yield of about 20 kg / plant.
- early maturity;
- good taste characteristics;
- increased fruit shelf life;
- the crop tolerates long-term storage and transportation.
- low scab resistance;
- low cold and frost resistance;
- the plant requires more careful care than other hybrids.
Moscow necklace is called one of the most popular varieties of a columnar, compact apple tree. An adult plant is a regular column, up to 3 m high.
The crown of the apple tree is slender, but dense, it is formed by vertically directed skeletal branches. The foliage of the tree is high, leaves are medium in size, elliptical, pointed at the end.
The apples in the variety are large, weighing from 150 to 250 g, their shape is round, spherical. The skin is smooth, medium density. In the green-ripe phase, the peel is distinguished by a rich green hue, with a slight blush of red color.
As it ripens, a blush completely covers the surface of the fetus, acquiring a dark red hue. On the cut apples are dense, juicy, light cream in color.
The taste of the crop is rich, sweet, with a slight acidity. The average productivity of the hybrid is 150-200 kg / plant.
- cold resistance up to –40 ° С;
- the versatility of apples;
- the hybrid is resistant to infections, including scab;
- the crop is suitable for fresh consumption, as well as processing.
- tree tops need shelter for the winter;
- the productivity of the variety lasts no more than 10-15 years, after which the plant needs to be replaced.
The Chudnoy apple tree is characterized by wind and winter hardiness; therefore, the plant is widely popularized in regions with an unstable climate. The height of the adult representative of the variety varies within 2 m, but when a tree is grafted, the tree can be extended up to 2.5 m. The tree’s crown is thick, wide, branched, weeping.
Fruiting in the apple tree Wonderful is observed already in the 3rd year after planting a seedling. Apples on a tree of medium size, weighing 100-200 g, but under optimal conditions, the maximum weight can increase to 400 g. The peel is smooth, medium density, saturated green-yellow hue.
The taste of fruits is rich, sweet with a slight sour flavor. On one side of the fetus, a red-pink striped blush necessarily appears. On the cut apples are juicy, dense, white. The yield of the variety reaches 80 kg / plant.
- cold resistance;
- early maturity;
- resistance to fungal diseases;
- increased pectin content in the pulp;
- versatility, the crop is suitable for any processing;
- excellent decorative qualities.
- short storing of the crop;
- a tree requires a special microclimate.
The apple tree Sokolovskoe has been known to gardeners since the 19th century and has been successfully zoned for the difficult climatic zones of the Urals. It is in this area that the hybrid has gained particular popularity due to its morphological and physiological features.
It is a variety of particularly low-growing tree-like plant, which does not exceed 2 m in height. The crown of the plant is horizontal, flat, of medium density, spreading. It is formed by large rounded leaves, pointed at the end. The surface of the leaf blade has a slight pubescence.
Fruits of a medium-sized tree, weighing up to 180 g. Apples are round, spherical in shape, slightly flattened in a vertical plane. The peel of ripe apples is dry, fairly dense, but smooth. The skin color is yellow-green in color, over which a red blush appears as it ripens. On the cut, the fruits are dense and juicy, the inner tissues are white, with a distinct sweet and sour aftertaste. The plant yield is up to 65 kg / plant.
- excellent product characteristics of fruits;
- high productivity;
- the variety does not require crown formation and thinning.
- poor renal resistance to cold snap;
- fruiting occurs irregularly;
- in case of drought, the quality of the crop decreases significantly.
The crown of the plant is wide, round, sprawling, it is formed by rounded leaves, pointed at the edge. The fruits of the hybrid are large, with an average weight of about 200 g.
The peel of apples is dense, with a characteristic oily coating and a glossy sheen. The skin color is yellow-green in color, a red-pink blush appears over the main color as it ripens.
The shape of the fruit is round, the surface is slightly ribbed. On the cut, apples are yellow-beige in color, the pulp has a low moisture content, but a rich sweet and sour taste.
The average yield of the hybrid is in the range of 150-200 kg / plant, but under optimal conditions it can increase to 250 kg. For good productivity, the Zhigulevskoe apple tree requires pollinators on the site. At the same time, Antonovka, Borovinka and Minskoe are considered the best pollinating varieties.
- good keeping quality of fruits;
- increased productivity;
- the crown does not require thinning;
- excellent taste characteristics of the crop.
- low frost resistance;
- the variety is unstable to scab;
- decrease in yield and yield regularity as the tree ages;
- the pulp does not differ in sufficient juiciness.
Apple tree Snowdrop - one of the best winter varieties. This plant can be successfully grown even in Siberia, along with such a popular hybrid as Plastun. At the same time, Snowdrop is able to tolerate almost any temperature difference more steadily.
The plant is compact, its height is within 1–2 m. The shape of the crown is round, but slightly flattened in the horizontal direction, with large-sized leaves rounded and pointed at the end. The foliage is distinguished by a rich green tint and a strong pubescence.
On an apple tree, medium-sized fruits weighing 140–165 g are ripening. The shape of the apples is round-conical, the skin is smooth, medium-dense, light yellow in color, over which a red-pink blush appears. The cut fruits are dense, juicy, light beige. The taste of apples is saturated, sweet and sour. Tree productivity is high, up to 100 kg can be collected from one adult plant.
- early maturity;
- increased winter hardiness;
- resistance to drought;
- resistance to characteristic infections
- unpretentiousness to soil conditions.
- the apple tree necessarily needs a pollinator on the site;
- differences in yield by year.
Did you know? The first apple orchard in Russia was laid by the legendary Prince Yaroslav the Wise. Plants were planted on the territory of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra in 1051.
Carpet - frost-resistant autumn variety of apples, ideally suited for growth and fruiting in the Urals and Siberia. It differs in compact dimensions, the average height of the tree does not exceed 1.5 m. The crown of the plant is round, spherical. The leaves are large, oblong, slightly pointed, light green in color.
The fruits of the hybrid are large, despite the compactness of the tree, the average weight of apples is about 180 g. The shape of the fruit is round, slightly flattened in the horizontal direction. The peel is medium density, smooth, yellow-green.
On top of the main color on the peel, a red-pink blush appears. On the cut, cream-colored apples, dense, dry. The taste of the pulp is characteristic, sweet and sour, with a special dessert aftertaste and aroma. The yield of the variety is not more than 60 kg / plant.
- increased productivity;
- excellent taste characteristics of apples;
- special decorative fruit;
- high resistance to fungal infections;
- apples contain an increased concentration of trace elements and vitamins.
- low resistance to drought;
- the crop and its quality sharply depends on weather conditions;
- young branches may break under the weight of fruits or snow.
Bratchud hybrid apple trees are one of the latest achievements of Russian selection. The tree was bred for fruiting in cold regions, therefore it is able to produce high yields even in regions with short summers.
Bratchud is a medium-sized dwarf tree-like plant, up to 2.7 m high, however, often the height of the hybrid does not exceed 2 m. The crown of the apple tree is sprawling, round, slightly flattened, with a diameter of about 3-4 m. Its base is large and round leaves also horizontally directed skeletal branches.
The fruits of the variety are large, weighing 100-200 g. They are rounded in shape, with smooth, medium-dense skin. The main color of apples is represented by yellow-green tones, on top of which a blurred red-pink blush appears.
On the cut apples are juicy, grainy, white. The aroma of the pulp is saturated, sweet and sour. A characteristic feature of the variety is the friendly ripening of the crop, so the collection of apples is often carried out in one stage. The average yield of a variety is 120–150 kg / plant.
- high productivity;
- fruiting uniformity by years;
- increased cold resistance;
- good keeping quality and taste of the crop.
- low resistance to fungal infections;
- crop quality is highly dependent on weather conditions;
- the tree needs shaping.
The apple-tree of the Prizemleznoye variety is classified as a winter-hardy, highly productive apple variety, distinguished by the versatility of the crop. This is a fairly compact tree, not exceeding 2.5 m in height, while the average height of the apple tree is about 2 m.
Important! Highest tasting estimates of the fruits of the Prizemleznoe variety are observed only at a total number of summer effective temperatures of at least 2200 ° C. Otherwise, distinct and saturated acidity will prevail in the pulp.
The crown of the plant is rounded flattened, its base is powerful branches, as well as oval-elongated leaves. Apples are small, spherical, with a dense skin. Its color is yellow-green tones with a characteristic rich blush.
On the cut, the pulp is juicy, dense, crisp, has a white tint with light green tint. The taste of apples is moderate, sweet, with unexpressed sourness. The average weight of an apple does not exceed 100 g, while the yield is up to 130 kg / tree.
- increased productivity;
- short growing season;
- good frost resistance;
- the pulp has a high concentration of ascorbic acid;
- high tasting value of the crop.
- small fruits;
- the flesh darkens during storage;
- the variety requires painstaking care.
The variety is considered one of the best advantages of Soviet selection, popular to this day. This plant can reach a height of 3 m, while the crown is compact and increased density. The crown is round, with small ovate leaves of emerald color.
Ripe fruits are round-conical in shape, covered with smooth skin of medium density. The mass of the fruit is not more than 200 g. The color of apples is saturated, yellow-green tones, a characteristic scarlet blush appears on the main color.
On the cut apples are juicy, fairly dense, white in color, but with a slight greenish tint. The pulp is characterized by a rich taste, with a caramel aftertaste and a delicate aroma. The yield of the hybrid is about 100 kg / tree.
- resistance to low temperatures;
- drought tolerance;
- high productivity;
- resistance to bacterial and fungal infections;
- good yield and fruit quality.
- irregular fruiting by years;
- the plant does not tolerate dimming;
- the variety requires special soil conditions.
The hybrid is known for its universal and high-quality crop, as well as the ability to bear fruit even in cold climates already in the 4th year of cultivation.It is a compact tree with a height of not more than 3 m. Its crown is characterized by medium or high density, as well as a round shape, spreading type. The leaves of Moscow Red are rounded and elongated, slightly pointed.
In the mature phase, apples are large, rounded, but slightly elongated to the base, without ribbing. The peel is medium density, green-yellow shades or golden in color, with a blurred red blush. The average weight of apples is in the range of 125–180 g. On the cut, the fruits are dense, juicy, yellow. The average productivity of a variety is about 100 kg / plant.
- increased productivity;
- early maturity;
- high frost resistance;
- good taste and marketability of the crop;
- excellent keeping quality of apples;
- resistance to scab.
Significant deficiencies in the variety were not identified.
Features of planting dwarf apple trees
Despite the fact that dwarf apple trees are genetically and morphologically almost identical to large-sized varieties, their cultivation requires special gardening from the gardener and compliance with several rules. The best time for planting seedlings is considered to be mid-April, but you can also do this in the fall, from late September to mid-October.
Important! After planting, the roots must be protected from hypothermia and moisture loss. To do this, the trunk circle is mulched (with a layer of at least 5 cm) with peat, humus, sawdust, pine needles, bark.
Apple trees are planted in a row way in a few pieces, this allows you to get a productive garden in a minimal area. At the same time, the distance between adjacent plants in the row should not be less than 3 m, and the row spacing should be maintained at least 4 m. Prepare holes for planting so that the minimum dimensions of the recesses for each tree are at least 80 × 60 cm (diameter × depth).
Apple trees are planted only in open and well-lit areas, so the distance from plantings to tall vegetation or garden buildings should not be less than 4–5 m. Plots located in the south or southeast direction are suitable. The culture does not like excessive humidity, so the landing site should differ in the level of groundwater occurrence of about 2.5 m.
Apple trees are planted in holes with a special fertile pillow. To cook it (for one plant) should be mixed: 3 buckets of humus, 2 tbsp. l superphosphate and 1 tbsp. potassium nitrate. The resulting mixture is poured onto the bottom of the landing fossa.
Video: how to plant a dwarf apple tree
Caring for Dwarf Apple Trees
To ensure that the dwarf apple tree is properly cared for, it is necessary to resort to the following procedures:
- Watering. Conducted regularly, at least 1 time per week. About 1-2 buckets of water are poured under each tree.
- Fertilizer. The apple tree requires additional nutrients throughout the growing season, therefore, top dressing is done every 2 weeks, until the fruit is harvested. To do this, use a solution of cow manure (1:10) or bird droppings (1:13).
- Weeding and cultivation. Do as necessary, but at least 1 time in 2 weeks. Loosening is carried out exclusively in the near-stem circle, to a depth of about 10-15 cm.
- Mulching. Mulch is introduced into the near-stem circle, with a layer of at least 10 cm, in early spring. As the mulch layer is used up, it is renewed. As mulch, wood sawdust, bark, pine needles, seed husks, coconut coir are used.
- Pruning. Carried out as necessary, to give the crown decorative, thinning branches or for sanitary purposes. The optimal period for this is in the spring, before the swelling of leaf buds, and in the fall, after leaf fall.
Video: how to prune a dwarf apple tree
Dwarf apple hybrids are now considered an excellent alternative to traditional varieties for both home and industrial gardening.These plants are characterized by increased early maturity and excellent productivity, so in a short period they can please with an abundance of aromatic and high-quality fruits. However, when choosing a variety, one should rely not only on yield indicators, but also on the climatic needs of plants, otherwise gardening will only lead to losses.