Variety of apple tree Breburn: characteristics and features of cultivation
In many fruit nurseries, you can find apple seedlings of the Braeburn variety, while sellers recommend the variety as incredibly tasty and extremely popular in Europe and the USA. However, gardeners do not always trust these words, and in vain. We invite you to get to know this “foreign guest” closer.
History of the variety
In 1952, a New Zealand farmer, O. Moran, discovered in his hedgerow in Vaivero near Motuek in the south of the island a new apple variety, which was obtained on the basis of free pollination of Lady Hamilton. The pollinator is not exactly known; it is believed that this may be Granny Smith, since it was he who grew nearby.
For sale, the variety was first grown by William Bross in the New Zealand Braeburn Orchard garden in the same region, in whose honor he received the name. Since 1980, they began to grow it internationally; it became one of the first two-color varieties. In 1999, the variety accounted for about 60% of the total apple crop in New Zealand. However, due to the deterioration in the quality of pulp in some regions during storage until spring, in recent years, the volume of cultivation has decreased by more than 2 times. Despite this, the variety is among the most popular in the United States.
Today, Braburn is grown in New Zealand, the USA, Chile, Europe, and more recently, it has been grown in the former Soviet Union.
To possess complete information about the variety, we will familiarize ourselves with the key characteristics.
Tree dimensions and crown shape
The height of the tree depends on the rootstock, the region of growing and pruning, and can range from 1.8–4 m. If it is grown on the M9 rootstock, the tree will be dwarf, on the M26 rootstock of medium height, on the M106 rootstock the tree will be taller. The crown is wide, can reach more than 3 m in diameter on tall trees. The trunk diameter is about 20 cm. It blooms profusely in May, by the end of the month almost all the flowers fall.
Taste qualities of apples
Apples are covered with dense yellow-greenish skin with a red blush of different shades (from red-orange to dark red). The pulp is fragrant, cream-colored, juicy, hard, crunchy, sweet taste combined with astringency. The taste of apples may vary slightly depending on the region in which they are grown. The shape of the fruit is a rounded cone, slightly ribbed.
The main purpose is fresh consumption
The variety is high-yielding, from 1 tree you can get about 50 kg of apples each weighing 200–250 g and 5.5 × 6.7 cm in size. Fruiting occurs on spurs, characterized by regularity. Despite the fact that the variety is self-pollinated, it is recommended to plant other varieties near for pollination and increase yield. Pollinating varieties must bloom simultaneously with Breburn, for example, it can be Granny Smith or Fuji. Breburn is suitable for pollination of other winter varieties.
Did you know? Persian Gulf countries believe that if you make a wish and eat 40 apples, blowing on each before you bite, then it will come true.
The variety belongs to winter species. You can grow the apple tree Breburn in regions with an average temperature of –25 ° С and higher (for USDA - zones 5–10). However, the variety shows the best yield in regions with a warm climate.
The variety is characterized by a low degree of resistance to major diseases:
- Scab - damage of brown-gray color on the surface, convex or concave. The apple in this place stops growing.
- Powdery mildew - a fungal disease, manifests itself as a plaque in the form of mold, affects all parts of the plant.
- Bacterial burn - manifested by wilting leaves and flowers that do not fall, as well as wet sores on the trunk and branches.
- Cedar Apple Rust - mold, manifests itself as a group of orange sticky processes, similar to tentacles.
Pros and possible disadvantages of the variety
- The advantages of Breburn include:
- the tree is easy to grow;
- high productivity;
- early bearing
- pleasant taste of juicy pulp;
- good transportability;
- suitable for large-scale production;
- ability to long storage.
The main disadvantage of the variety is the darkening of the pulp of a part of the crop during long-term storagethat can not be detected by external signs. The flesh becomes brown, presumably as a result of the action of carbon dioxide, which cannot come out due to the dense skin. However, it should be noted that this drawback is not typical for all regions. In addition, in home gardening, the crop, as a rule, is not stored for a long time, so this drawback is invisible.
Features of planting and care
The procedure for planting and caring for Breburn is not much different from other varieties.
Optimal time for landing
This variety must be planted in the fall. The best time for planting comes after the sap flow has stopped, that is, in November, when the temperature column drops below + 10 ° C.
Did you know? According to the tonic effect, 1 apple is equal to a cup of coffee.
How to plant an apple tree Breburn:
- Choose a sunny, windless place with moderately fertile loose loamy soil for planting.
- Dig around all the weeds.
- Dig a hole 60–70 cm deep and 2 times the diameter of the root ball.
- Lay a layer of drainage.
- Add fertilizer to a part of the soil, put it in a hole. Leave for 2 weeks.
- Insert the support.
- Buy seedlings in a proven place, carefully inspecting before buying.
- Soak the roots in water for several hours on the day of planting.
- Lower the roots into the pit, spreading well.
- Sprinkle with soil, lightly compact.
- Tie to a support.
- Pour a bucket of water.
- Mulch the soil.
Fig. 1 - planting process of apple seedlings, Fig. 2 - correctly planted seedling
Feed and watering scheme
Breburn perceives organic fertilizers well - blood, fish, bone meal, humus. Mineral fertilizers can also be used. It is recommended to fertilize 2 times a year: in early spring and late fall. The first 2-3 years do not need to be fertilized.
When the planting is completed, the trees must be watered every 3-4 days for 1 bucket of water per plant. If there is a drought, the interval can be reduced, and the amount of water increased.
Important! If you irrigate a young apple tree Breburn irregularly, it may not take root in a new place.
An adult tree is watered less often. Depending on which rootstock the variety is grown in, the amount of water you need is different. So, for tall trees with strong roots, more water is needed on the M106 stock. To determine if an apple tree needs watering, stick a stick 3 cm deep into the ground, if it is wet - watering is not required. Mulching helps protect moisture, which also protects against weeds.
Irrigation regularity after planting is one of the most important unclassified survival of young plants.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Breburn needs annual pruning of old, sick, damaged, intersecting, vertically growing branches, as well as thinning the crown.
The formation of the crown occurs according to the standard scheme:
- in the 1st year the lower tier is formed of 2–4 branches at a distance of 75 cm from the ground;
- in the 2nd year 2 tier is formed according to a similar pattern, branches of the lower tier are shortened;
- on the 3rd year form 3 tiers, shorten the branches of the previous tier and cut off the top;
- for the 4th year give the final shape, if necessary, cut off the top.
The branches of one tier should be approximately the same distance from each other and grow parallel to the ground. The crown is shaped like a glass. Fruiting spurs do not prune
Pest and Disease Control
To prevent damage to cedar apple rust, it is recommended to ensure that juniper does not grow near, the bushes of which are highly susceptible to disease. To protect the tree from fungal diseases, it is periodically sprayed with fungicides.
Dangerous harm can be caused by:
Butterfly caterpillars and other insects eat fruits, leaves, seeds, so the tree is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid, Parisian herbs or insecticides. From rodents help traps, wrapping a tree trunk for the winter. Spraying with fungicides and insecticides for prevention is carried out every 2 weeks.
Important! Do not spray the apple tree during the flowering period and when the crop is ripe.
After harvesting, it is necessary to remove all the remains of fallen leaves, apples, old mulch. The apple tree is watered, fed, loosened the earth, sprayed from diseases and insects, sprinkled with fresh mulch. In a cold region, you need to wrap a seedling. An adult tree needs to be wrapped up to protect against rodent animals. When the snow falls, it is necessary to pick it up under the tree.
Harvesting and storage
The first crop can be obtained in the 2nd year after planting. Harvested in September or October, the specific period is determined by the region of cultivation. The fruits are suitable for making juice, dried fruits, sauces, mashed potatoes, apple wine, freezing. Since apples of this variety do not emit a lot of juice when baking, they are ideal for making pies and pies.
At zero temperature, the crop can be stored for up to 4 months. In special warehouses for storage, where the temperature, humidity, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are controlled, it can be stored for up to 10 months.
Variety Breburn has long been successfully grown in New Zealand, Europe and the United States and has an attractive appearance and unusual taste. If you decide to grow it at home, then subject to care measures you will regularly receive a rich harvest.
Network user reviews
I have Breburn fruiting for the 2nd year, planted in the spring of 2013. The apple is beautiful, but sour for my taste, last year they were few and long, they didn’t lie, I ate right away, and this year I hid them and they lay until the beginning January, became weaker and I liked more. But also ended, sorry, did not take a photo.