The best varieties of cucumbers for open ground and greenhouses of the Urals
The Ural climate is quite severe, therefore, when planting cucumbers on the site and in greenhouses, it is necessary to more carefully approach the choice of variety. The most suitable crops for this climate zone and the rules for their cultivation will be discussed below.
Features and climate of the Ural region
The region under consideration is a natural boundary between Asia and Europe. Its basis is the Ural Mountains. In the south of the region, the river basin is localized. Ural.
Did you know? In ancient times, ancient geographers considered the Ural mountain range to be the edge of the world and claimed that there was nothing else behind it.
The zone is conditionally divided into several parts:
The climate of the Urals is determined by its geographical localization. The zone lies at a distance from the oceans and at the deepest point of Eurasia. The north of the region is washed by the polar seas, and the southern part borders on the Kazakh steppes. Scientists characterized the climate of this zone as a standard mountain, but in the flat terrain it is closer to continental.
Subarctic and temperate zones have a rather strong influence on weather conditions. If we consider as a whole, the climate of the area is harsh, and the mountains, which are a natural barrier, play a decisive role.
Regarding the annual rainfall - the western part is characterized by a more humid climate, the norm is 700 mm / year, in the east the climate is dry continental, and the rainfall is 400 mm / year. Solar radiation is unevenly distributed throughout the region. The south is much better lit, so it is noticeably warmer.
As you move north, the illumination is much worse. For comparison, in the south, the average daily temperature in winter is -16 ° C, and in the north -22 ° C. In summer, in the northern part of the Urals, the temperature does not rise above + 8 ° С, while in the south it is from + 20 ° С.
The duration of the seasons in different parts of the Urals is also not the same:
- winter in the polar zone is cold and lasts 8 months, while summer lasts only 1.5 months;
- in the south, winter is much shorter, and summer lasts 4–5 months.
The best varieties for planting in greenhouses
When deciding which cucumber seeds to buy for sowing in the Urals, it is worth considering the features of a particular part of the region.
Residents of the south can consider any variety, since during the summer period, which lasts 4–5 months, it is possible to plant crops (especially early ripe varieties) even several times, and those living closer to the north and in the polar zone should choose self-pollinated varieties that can equally well develop in open ground and in greenhouses.
Belongs to table salting varieties. The plant self-pollinates without the help of insects. It tolerates low and high temperatures, is highly resistant to fungal diseases. Fruits ripen 40 days after germination.
Plants are characterized by a high growth rate. The hybrid is able to form up to 8 fruits in one node at a time. Productivity is consistently high and amounts to 28 kg / m² on average, and with good care it can reach 50 kg / m².
Amur F1 cucumbers are cylindrical up to 10 cm long. Their surface is covered with frequent tubercles with black spines. The skin is thin, but strong, well protects the fetus from mechanical damage. The pulp is dense, fleshy, juicy, smells good. The seed chamber is very small.
Fruits are genetically devoid of bitterness, so their taste remains at their best even under stressful cultivation conditions (drought, temperature fluctuations, excessive humidity). Cucumbers of this variety perfectly tolerate transportation.
Suitable for cultivation in open and closed ground. Belongs to self-pollinated varieties. The growing season lasts 45 days.Ecol F1 is characterized by high resistance to stressful conditions, as well as diseases of fungal, bacterial origin and pests.
Plants are characterized by a high growth rate. Powerful, with shortened internodes, in each of which 4-6 cucumbers are formed. The variety is characterized by high yield of marketable products. The yield per 1 ha is 120 tons.
Cucumbers are medium in size. Their length is about 12 cm, but pickles can be collected (when the fruits reach 5–6 cm in length). The shape of the cucumbers is cylindrical, aligned. The surface is hilly, with thorns. Saturated green. The inner cavity is pleasant in taste, juicy, devoid of bitterness. The seed chamber is small in size. Fruits are transportable, great for conservation.
Emerald Family F1
Indeterminate hybrid, self-pollinated, with a predominantly female flowering type. The lateral shoots of the plant develop poorly, which greatly simplifies the care of it. Fruits ripen in 43 days. Productivity with m² is about 16 kg. The emerald family is characterized by resistance to the main fungal diseases of similar crops and pests. Fruits well in open / closed ground.
Did you know? Spines on the fruits of cucumbers are necessary to remove excess moisture.
Cucumbers of medium size 12 cm long, weighing up to 130 g, are cylindrical in shape, with tuberous skin covered with white spikes. The pulp is fragrant, juicy, not bitter, crunchy. The fruits are well tolerated and versatile in use.
One of the new hybrid varieties. It is perspective for cultivation in regions of risky agriculture. Refers to early ripening parthenocarpic plants.
It forms mainly female flowers. The variety is adapted for cultivation under film shelters and in capital greenhouses. Productivity is about 20 kg / m².
Plants are characterized by a high growth rate with an average shoot-forming ability. Zelentsy form small, 10 cm long, weighing 100 g.
The hybrid is adapted for cultivation in film shelters and capital greenhouses. Self-pollinating, super early variety. Ripens in 38–40 days. Productivity leaves 18 kg / m². Bushes are indeterminate, with medium branching, with a predominantly female flowering type. In the sinus of the central shoot, 4–5 cucumbers are simultaneously formed, in the lateral shoots - up to 8.
An early parthenocarpic hybrid with high productivity, which is about 20 kg per m². Cucumbers ripen in 55 days. Perfectly tolerate transportation, universal to use. The variety bears fruit equally well in open and closed ground.
Plants are powerful, tall. With good care, 5 fruits are formed in each sinus. The length of greenery is up to 12 cm. The surface is medium hilly, green. The pulp is dense, crunchy, pleasant in taste, does not bite.
All-weather grade, early ripening. Vegetation lasts 41–42 days. The plant is pollinated by bees. Productivity 12 kg / m².
Zelentsy oval-cylindrical, with a coarse surface. Length 10-12 cm, weight - about 100 g. The pulp is densely structured, crunchy, not bitter. The fruits have high pickling qualities, are also good in fresh form, transportable.
Did you know? The mountains of the Urals pass through all climatic zones except deserts.
Baby Mini F1
Mid early cultivar of the gherkin type. Pollinated without the help of insects. Designed for cultivation under the film and in the open ground. Fruiting plants begin after 50 days. In each node, 1-3 fruits are laid. Productivity - 17 kg / m².
Cucumbers are small, shortened, barrel-shaped, up to 10 cm long. Their surface is smooth, dark green, shiny. The internal cavity is crisp, juicy, pleasant taste, does not contain bitterness.
Video: baby mini cucumbers
Plants are medium-sized, self-pollinated. Cucumbers are small, 10 cm long, weighing 85 g, elongated-elliptical in shape. The surface of Zelentsy is highly hilly. Covered with white spikes. The pulp has a pleasant dessert flavor and a crispy aroma.
Video: clodin cucumber variety
Early ripe (40-50 days from germination), unpretentious in care, a high-yielding hybrid. Refers to parthenocarpic forms, with a predominantly female type of flowering. In each node, 5–9 fruits are formed. A feature of the variety is the ability to give new ovaries after harvesting the grown cucumbers for a month. Productivity is about 17 kg / m².
Small cucumbers, up to 9 cm long, weighing no more than 80 g. The fruits do not outgrow, even if they are not removed on time from the bush. The surface of the greens is finely tuberous, highly pubescent. The pulp is very tasty, crispy, and retains its structure even after heat treatment.
Varieties for planting in the open ground
In open ground, it is better to practice the cultivation of cucumbers for residents of the southern parts of the Urals. If for the northern part, in addition to early ripe crops, no one else is suitable, then here you can consider the cultivation of late ripe representatives.
Bee pollinated gherkin hybrid. It is adapted for cultivation in the open and closed soil. The plant is abundant and long-term fruiting. It is steady against fungi and wreckers. Bushes of average height, with average ability to weaving.
Cucumbers ripen in 50 days. They are shaped like barrels. Their surface is highly hilly, dark green in color, with slightly blurred yellow stripes at the base. The length of the fruit is 9 cm, weight 80 g. The flesh is crispy, tastes good. Perfectly retains its structure after heat treatment.
The hybrid in question is a specially developed pollinator culture, with a predominantly male type of flowering. It sits on plants with a female type of flowering for pollination and increase productivity. Suitable for summer varieties of cucumber crops. For 10 plants with a female type of flowering, one specimen is planted, forming mainly male flowers.
Important! Bumblebee F1 increases the yield of the main varieties in the open ground by 50–70%.
The plant itself is vigorous, actively branching. It forms a spindle-shaped cucumber 13 cm long. The surface of the fruit covers a small number of tubercles. The pulp is characterized by high palatability. Fruits are actively used in various culinary interpretations and fresh.
The growing season of Marinda F1 lasts from 40 to 50 days. The variety is attractive because it does not require bees to pollinate flowers. In addition, the plants are characterized by high productivity - 30 kg / m². They can be cultivated both in open and in closed ground.
Fruits are formed small, weighing up to 70 g, up to 10 cm long. They are covered with frequent tubercles with light spines. They have excellent taste indicators. Suitable for various processing and fresh consumption.
Bee pollinated hybrid adapted for outdoor cultivation. It tolerates drought and other adverse weather events. Plants are characterized by moderate formation of stepsons, which greatly simplifies the care of them. Vegetation lasts 40-50 days.
Important! With the beginning of fruiting of the Ajax F1 variety, it is necessary to collect Zelentsy daily to enable the development of a new ovary.
Cucumbers of this variety are small. Cylindrical, covered with a large number of tubercles with white spikes.Fruits are characterized by high palatability.
The pulp smells pleasant, sweetish, juicy, devoid of bitterness. It has a dense, crunchy structure that persists even after heat treatment during canning. Fruiting is extended, lasts until frost. Productivity 5 kg / m².
Culture does not require pollination by bees. Excellent fruiting in open and closed ground. Resistant to adverse weather conditions and most diseases. Vegetation lasts 37-40 days. The fruiting period is extended. Marketable yield is 2 kg / m².
Plants form fruits of medium size, cylindrical in shape. The surface of cucumbers is highly hilly, dense. The pulp is characterized by excellent palatability. The culture is often used for growing on an industrial scale, due to the extended fruiting period.
An early ripe hybrid adapted for cultivation in the open field. The vegetation is characterized by medium growth strength, and relatively low climbing, which greatly facilitates the care of it. Type of flowering is mainly female. Vegetation lasts from 40 to 50 days. Fruiting is extended.
The fruits of this variety have a beautiful shape. Outwardly they look like barrels covered with frequent tubercles. It tastes nice, crispy. Perfect for all types of canning.
Mid-early hybrid, ripening in 50-60 days. Its main advantages are self-pollination and the ability to adapt well to any weather conditions. That is why Trilogy F1 is ideal for the open ground of the Urals.
Bushes are not too large. The main crop provides a central shoot. Cucumbers in shape resemble a cylinder. Covered with a large number of prickly tubercles. Dense in structure, pleasant to taste. There is no bitterness in the fruit, even if the crop was cultivated in rather arid conditions. Productivity with m² is 30 kg.
Did you know? The pulp and seeds of cucumber relieve overexcitation, including sexual. It is for this reason that previously culture was grown in large quantities near monasteries and parishes.
An early crop giving the first crop 38 days after emergence. The more often you harvest, the more new ovaries the plant will form.
Fruiting can last until the end of summer. The crop is used for cultivation in the first and second turns in the open field.
In greenhouses can be cultivated year-round. The fruits of this variety are quite large. 15 cm long, weighing up to 150 g.
The shape is elongated fusiform. The surface of the fruit is coarse, dense.
The pulp is very fragrant, exudes a lot of juice and crunches.
One of the advantages of the culture is the lack of tendency of the fruits to yellow, even if they are overexposed on the bushes.
Vegetation yields fruit 40 days after germination. The variety is good for growing in unheated greenhouses and in open ground. Fruits well in all climate conditions. It is highly resistant to fungal and viral diseases. Pollinated independently.
The growth rate of the bushes is medium. Lateral shoots of the plant give a little. In the sinuses forms 4-5 ovaries. Cucumbers weighing 120 g are tubular. Their surface is coarse, dark green. The pulp is dense, tasty, aromatic. Productivity with m² - 3.5 kg. Fruiting is extended.
Did you know? In Cyprus, jam is made from cucumbers.
The culture bears fruit 50 days after germination. The plant is pollinated independently, which makes it possible to cultivate the variety not only in the garden, but also in the greenhouse. In addition, the culture is highly resistant to fungal diseases, excellent tolerance of high humidity and drought.
Plants grow large, powerful. Strong branching is not typical for the variety. The main crop is given by the central stem. Cucumbers are small up to 12 cm, weighing about 100 g. They have a pleasant taste, good transportability.
Features of growing and caring for cucumbers in the Urals
If you liked one of the above hybrid varieties of cucumbers, then such planting material does not require preparation before sowing. Seeds are sown dry. One of the first tasks of an agrarian during cultivation in open and closed ground - growing seedlings.
The soil is prepared for sowing seeds, mixing in equal parts:
- garden ground.
For disinfection, they spill with a hot solution of wood ash. To cook it, you need to add 800 g of ash to 10 liters of water, boil the liquid and boil for 10 minutes. Pour the liquid immediately hot and mix the soil to evenly distribute it. After waiting until the soil cools down to + 30 ° C, you can begin to plant.
Did you know? Cucumber juice is an excellent cleaner for glass. If you rub the flesh of a mirror or a window, and then wipe it with a dry towel, the result will be better than with Mr. Proper.
At the stage of germination, the task of the agrarian is to ensure that the soil does not mold and remains moist. For this, the shelter is removed daily for 20 minutes, if necessary, moisten the soil from the spray gun. As soon as the sprouts hatch, the container is moved to a well-lit window sill, and the shelter is completely removed. The air temperature is gradually reduced to + 16 ° C during the day and + 14 ° C at night.Once a day, crops are sprayed from a spray bottle with room temperature water. When the cotyledonary leaves open, you can add 2 drops of Epina to the water for spraying. The soil must always be maintained in a loose state.
At the same stage, plants should be thinned, leaving a distance of 10 cm between them. The weakest sprouts should be removed. With the advent of 3-4 real sheets, they are dived into separate containers. It is best to use self-decomposing pots for this. It will be easier to work with them in the future.
10 days after the pick, you can feed the plants. 30 g of nitrophoska is added to a glass of compost and all this is dissolved in 5 l of water. The resulting composition is carried out watering plants under the root. In the phase of having 5 full sheets revealed, they are dived into the ground or into the greenhouse.
Before the final picking, seedlings need to be hardened. They begin to do this 2 weeks before the transplant. Gradually, the air temperature in the room is reduced to a similar outdoor temperature. Then they begin to put seedlings on the street. First, by 3 hours, then by 5. Every day, the interval is increased, reaching 24 hours.Also, they are cultivated in a greenhouse, only pots with seedlings are placed in the greenhouse, and not on the street. The last day before planting, plants should be spent directly in pots in a new place, if the weather allows.
Before planting cucumbers, you need to prepare a place for them. It should be well-lit, protected from the wind. Soil preparation is carried out in the fall. First it is dug up to a depth of 20 cm, then it is watered with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. A week later, under digging to a similar depth, 10 kg of fresh manure, peat and sand per m² are added.
In the spring, a month before planting, they carry out identical autumn manipulations, only fresh manure is replaced with rotted or compost. Planting is carried out when a stable temperature is established on the street within + 15 ° C, and the soil is warmed up by at least + 8 ° C.
Pits for planting form such depth and width as the containers in which the seedlings are located. The distance between the plants is 30-50 cm, between the rows - 50 cm. Pegs are dug near the holes and the plants are tied to them.
Then carry out watering. Water consumption per 1 bush will be 2 liters.When the liquid is well absorbed, the soil around the stem is well loosened and mulched with compost. At the risk of return frosts for the first time, a film shelter is built for the plants.
When planting in a greenhouse, preparations also begin to be carried out ahead of time. In the fall, after harvesting, the top 10 cm of soil is removed. At a depth of 20 cm, for each m², 10 kg of horse manure + 5 kg of straw is laid. After this, watering is carried out with Fitosporin.
The 10 cm soil layer that was originally removed is replaced with a mixture of peat and sand in a 1: 1 combination + 200 g of superphosphate or 400 g of wood ash are added for each m². A month before planting, digging the soil to a depth of 20 cm is carried out. Wells are formed according to the same pattern as in open ground.
Caring for cucumbers open and covered ground has no special differences and consists in the following measures:
- Watering - in the greenhouse, humidification is carried out every 5-7 days, in the open ground you need to adhere to this schedule + take into account weather conditions (if it rains, do not water at all, if it is too hot, water more often). The moistening of young plants takes 10 liters of water / m². Adults will need so much water for each bush. Watering is carried out in the furrows between the rows or by drip irrigation.
- Loosening and mulching - These activities are carried out after watering and rain. They allow you to enrich the soil with oxygen, retain moisture in it and protect yourself from pests living in the upper layers of the soil. As mulch, you can use compost, sawdust with peat and sand or fresh green grass.
- Fertilizers - 10 days after the transplant, you can feed with mullein. For 10 liters of water add 2 cups of manure. This is enough to fertilize 1 m² of plantings. The following top dressing is introduced at the stage of ovary formation. To 10 liters of water add 300 g of wood ash and 3 tbsp. compost. This amount will be enough for 1 plant. When cultivated in a greenhouse, the first and second feeding is carried out similarly, and then repeated every 20 days, adhering to the concentration as in the second feeding, until the very end of fruiting.
Important! In the fruiting phase, do not feed the plants with manure, otherwise the taste of cucumbers will deteriorate.