Features of the application of stocks for apple trees
In order for the planted young apple tree to take root well and bear fruit as quickly as possible, it needs the right foundation. The fruiting stability and overall tree care largely depend on the choice of stock. This article will help to understand the types of stocks for apple trees and their features. You will learn to pick and harvest cuttings yourself, as well as take care of a grafted tree.
What are scions and stocks for the apple tree
Among apple trees, as well as among pears and other fruit crops, there are varieties that can root autonomously. However, most young trees are grafted and consist of a scion (grafted plant) and a stock. The latter is the so-called foundation of fruit culture - this is a plant that is vaccinated. Through the rootstock of the rootstock, the tree will subsequently receive nutrients and water.The stock has an effect on various qualities and properties of the aerial part of the tree: growth power, early maturity, winter hardiness, the number of flower buds laid, fruit set, productivity, regular fruiting and their appearance In an unvaccinated apple tree, due to the lack of proper nutrition, fruiting begins relatively late. When choosing stocks and scions, it is important to consider their compatibility. With an illiterate selection of components of the vaccination, apple trees show slow growth, low productivity and poor resistance to negative external phenomena. Moreover, such trees are short-lived.
Did you know? The Celts, the ancient inhabitants of Britain, called paradise the word "Avalon", which meant "country of apples."
What are stocks
Before considering the features of the use of stocks for apple trees, familiarize yourself with their classification.
Clonal rootstocks of apple or vegetative
Clonal stocks are the most common species obtained by rooting cuttings, that is, by the vegetative method. This method is practiced in order to preserve the properties of the mother plant. Nurseries are engaged in their cultivation. This group, in turn, is divided into mid-height and dwarf forms.
The main advantages of apple trees on such stocks compact trees, early maturity (the first crop is harvested after 3 years), the ability to annually remove a quality crop, the simplicity of pruning the crown and picking fruits are considered.Unfortunately, this species has its cons. Among them - short fruiting period (from 8 to 15 years), laborious care, the need for the construction of a support. In addition, due to the surface growth of the roots, the tree does not tolerate frosts and suffers in the dry period.
Intercalary or insertion
Intercalar rootstocks are combinations of seed cuttings and intermediate inserts of dwarf rootstocks or simply strobogen. The inserts are cuttings (cuts of stems) taken from the mother liquor, as a rule, of a dwarf variety (Dusena or Paradise) with a length of 12 to 22 cm.Obtaining a seedling with intercalar stock for three years: a) the first year - double budding; b) the second year - vaccination by rapprochement; c) the third year - the removal of part of the cultivar and the top of the intercalar rootstock. Apple trees on such cuttings combine a relatively small height, trunk stability in the soil and good fruiting speed. A possible disadvantage can be considered insufficient resistance to mechanical damage to a number of dwarf forms.
How to grow wild apple trees on a stock
The small game (forest apple tree) is usually obtained in specialized farms by the seed method. The growing process is carried out in several stages:
- Extracting seeds. In small nurseries, seed harvesting is done manually.In large farms, this process is mechanized.
- Stratification of seed. The procedure is only necessary if the soil on the site is heavy. Seeds are mixed with three parts of wet coarse river sand and kept in boxes from a month to 90 days. A basement with a temperature of +3 ... + 5 ° С is suitable as a storage.
- Sowing. Raw materials are sown in holes 2-3 cm deep. Garden soil should be sufficiently nutritious. After sowing, the soil is mulched and moistened.
- Pick of seedlings. The procedure is carried out until 2 of these sheets are formed; in this case, the root root is pinched off, keeping only 4 cm from the transition zone from the root to the stem. Sprouts are planted according to the scheme of 15-20 cm by 7-8 cm (between rows - between plants), after which the seedlings are watered, mulched and shaded from the sun in the first few days.
Compatibility of stocks and scions of apple trees
To begin with, it is worth noting that incompatibility manifests itself in the form of the death of the rhizome, which leads to the depletion and death of the tree. The most unpretentious to stock are such varieties as Antonovka, Grushovka, Borovinka. Universal cuttings can also serve as the basis for any variety of apple trees. It is permissible to instill only Velvet, Cinnamon, Saffron Pepin on Kitayku.
Did you know? The area of all apple orchards on our planet is about 5 million hectares.
Vaccination site when planting an apple tree
The place of grafting is especially significant for a seedling on a stunted stock. In order to maintain the varietal characteristics of a weak-growing and early-growing apple tree, it is necessary to plant it so that the overgrown grafted plant does not touch the ground. It is important to take into account the features of young trees planting on vegetative and interstitial stocks.
For example, with respect to vegetative ones, the place of grafting should be approximately 3 cm above the surface of the earth, and when planting on insertions, you should focus on the climate of a particular area. If enough snow falls, the insert is left above the ground. In the opposite situation, the inserts are deepened into the ground.The scheme of growing vegetative stocks: a - uterine bush after separation of layering; b - covering the bush with soil for the winter; c - spring growth of shoots and their first hilling; d — complete fumigation to create conditions for root formation; d - uterine bush freed from the soil, prepared for the autumn separation of rooted layering; e - rooted cuttings cut from the uterine bush. The rhizome of mature trees, developing at a distance of 15–25 cm from the surface of the earth, can not be cut, but used for grafting. In this situation, vaccination is done in the spring season by copying (when both cuttings have the same thickness) or in the summer months by budding (single kidney vaccination).Methods of grafting fruit trees: 1 - copulation; 2 - copulation improved; 3 - vaccination in the lateral incision; 4 - vaccination in the split; 5 - vaccination for bark; 6 - grafting a bridge With regards to determining the cuttings on which the apple tree, the grafted plant can only recognize the type of stock. For example, in the seed type, the underground part consists of a segment of the central root and five massive roots following it. In a vegetative rootstock, the rhizome consists of a large number of roots extending from the trunk. If we talk about the origin of a particular type of stock, then only a specialist can determine it.
Features of different varieties of apple trees as stocks
Further, you will learn which forms of apple trees are considered promising as rootstocks, and which for one reason or another are undesirable.
Important! According to the results of long-term studies, the semi-dwarf rootstocks e56, 64 turned out to be the best varieties of apple trees as rootstocks in the middle lane-143, Ural-5. A semi-dwarf stock assumes a maximum height of only 2.5 meters.
Nedzvetsky apple tree
The variety is common in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. And in a temperate continental climate, the tree freezes, so it is not recommended to take it as a stock.
The Chinese woman is winter-hardy, drought-resistant and immune to fungal ailments. It can be considered as a stock, but you should be careful - it connects only with some varieties (for example, Melba, Streifling, Renet Krudner). And with such popular varieties as Anisovye, Antonovka vulgaris and Borovinka, unfortunately the compatibility is poor.
Siberian berry apple tree
Siberian Siberia comes in many forms: from a compact tree of medium height (3-4 m), to vigorous specimens growing up to 10 m. As a stock, it is in demand in the Russian Federation (in Siberia and the Urals). On the Siberian variety Antonovka saffron, Streifling, Borovinka and Papirovka grow well. The rhizome of this tree withstands winters well, but does not respond well to drought. Reproduction is possible by seeds and root segments. Seedlings of this variety should be planted earlier than the rest of the stocks, as in Sibirka the vegetative phase ends earlier.
Apple tree Purple
The species was bred by crossing the Nedzvetsky apple tree with a dark red variety. Frost resistance is slightly higher than that of Nedzvetsky (tolerates frosts down to -34 ° C). Due to this, the form has gained popularity in areas with cold winters. Moreover, the degree of survival with varieties of domestic apple trees has not been studied.
Raiku (Paradise or Bushy variety) in the people is often mistaken for Kitayku, although these are completely different varieties. Rajka is a relatively popular dwarf variety widely used in breeding stocks.
How to care for a grafted apple tree
With nursing procedures, the grafted tree is determined by analyzing the growth rate of the trunk and crown. For example, with a branch length of more than 40 cm, you can start forming the crown. And in the coming spring, it is advisable to reduce the main conductor by 2-3 eyes. Then you need to shorten and bend the skeletal branches so that they are below the stem.Cultivation of grafted material: 1 - garter oculant to the spike; 2 - pruning of an annual seedling per crown (unbranched on the left, branched on the right); 3 - tier crown of a biennial seedling; 4 - sparse-tier crown; 5 - guying vertically arranged branches at the beginning of growth with a cord; 6 - same as in 5, only with a copper wire fixture
How to harvest scions of apple trees
First of all, uterine trees must be checked for compatibility with the variety. As cuttings, pick up ripe annual twigs without signs of freezing. Cut them from mid-level stems, from the outside of the crown. Cuttings are best harvested from massive growths, the length of which is more than 40 cm, and the thickness is close to pencil. If we talk about the timing, then it is advisable to perform work at the end or beginning of the calendar winter.
Important! Cuttings stored in the refrigerator require frequent checks for mold and unwanted early swelling of the eyes.
The storage method depends on weather conditions and climatic zone. For example, in areas with snowy winters, it is recommended to keep branches in the snow embankment with a layer of 50–70 cm. If this is not possible, use an ordinary refrigerator (with a temperature of +1 ... + 2 ° С).
Before placing the shoots in a cold chamber, they must be cut into 30 cm and put into a sealed bag made of polyethylene, covered with sandWhen harvesting scions, you should take into account several simple tricks from experienced fruit growers:
- try to take stems with at least a small piece of 2-year-old wood (if the tree is young, cut cuttings from branches that you intend to remove in spring);
- thin, defectively formed stems with undeveloped growth eyes are not suitable for grafting (if there is no choice, it is better to use cuttings from the growth of the previous year with good growth eyes);
- cut branches preferably from regularly pruned apple trees;
- for better preservation of cuttings, do not forget to trim the wounds with garden varieties after pruning;
- harvest more cuttings than you would have planned (after all, there is no guarantee that all raw materials will be preserved).
To get on your site such a coveted apple tree dotted with juicy fruits, the use of stocks is important and even necessary. Such manipulation allows to improve the quality indicators of the variety, contributes to better rooting of the plant. In addition, the cultivation of stocks and their application is a force even for beginner gardeners.