Sweet cherry does not belong to the type of plants that they talk about: planted and forgot. Cherry tree needs careful care with increased attention to preventive measures that prevent the appearance of numerous diseases that threaten it. Read more about diseases of cherries and how to deal with them, read further in the article.
Sweet cherry diseases and methods of their treatment
Most of all, this fruit tree is susceptible to infection by fungi, and bacteria are the less common sources of disease. And adverse weather conditions can provoke the appearance of viral diseases.
Did you know? Some varieties of cherry trees can reach a height of 30 m. Collecting berries from them is really unsafe.
Most often, cherry plum is affected by flat and sulfur-yellow polypore.
- The first of these causes rotting of the wood, which provokes its increased fragility. The tree at the bottom of the stem is infected; from there, the mycelium moves to its upper parts along its core. Fruit bodies of a flat tinder fungus, painted in gray-brown color, sit on a tree trunk one above the other in the form of tiles for several years. This fungal disease primarily affects weakened trees.
- The sulfur-yellow tinder fungus leads to the appearance of actively expanding brown rot in the core of the stem, causing cracking of wood. Cracks are filled with white mycelium. Fruit bodies with a yellow or orange wavy surface fit tightly on the stem, connecting at their base like tiles.
They fight with sulfur yellow tinder just like with a flat. In order to prevent and treat the disease, in the spring, before the leaves bloom, the tree is sprayed with a 1 percent Bordeaux mixture or with chemical means in the form of “KhOM” or “Abiga-Peak”. Separate fruit bodies of the tinder fungus are cut out or sawn out, and the wound in the wood is decontaminated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with garden var or oil-based paint.
This fungal disease of cherry foliage occurs in the spring, manifesting itself in the form of active staining of the flower ovaries in brown and their subsequent drying out, as well as browning of the young foliage and fruit branches. On the affected areas of the cortex and on the leaves, small growths and plaque appear, which are a gray mycelium. The spores formed in it infect the remaining healthy parts of the tree. Most often, the disease manifests itself in a cold and damp spring. With a severe defeat, the plant looks like burned with fire and can die.
For preventive purposes, during the period of budding, all cherry trees should be sprayed with a 1% Bordeaux mixture or “HOM”. After flowering, this treatment should be repeated. In the summer-autumn period, it is useful to spray the cherries with Horus. In case of illness, it is necessary to immediately cut off the affected branches and burn them, and the places of cuts or cuts should be covered with garden varnish or oil paint based on drying oil.
This non-infectious disease is expressed by the active accumulation in the cracks of the cortex of a flowing sweet liquid that solidifies on the surface, the so-called gum, which is a product of the splitting of the membrane of wood cells. Its appearance is provoked by factors unfavorable for the growth of cherries:
- increased acidity of the soil or its waterlogging;
- an excess of fertilizer in the soil;
- low temperature;
- reduced or, conversely, increased air humidity.
Mechanical damage to the cortex can also lead to this disease.. As a result, a strong release of gum can cause the drying of the whole tree. Preventive measures, which are both therapeutic, consist in scrupulous adherence to the agrotechnical rules for the cultivation of cherries, in protecting it from frostbite and from sunburn.
Important! When caring for a cherry tree, and especially when harvesting, mechanical damage to the trunk and branches, fraught with the penetration of pathogens of serious diseases, should be avoided as much as possible.
This disease manifests itself as an active yellowing of leaf surfaces between the veins on the leaves. This process is caused by severe nutritional deficiencies.coming to young foliage, which, in turn, is due to frostbite, leading to the death of the bark, or root and stem rot, as well as necrosis. The disease leads to drying of the leaves and the death of branches and even trunks.
To cure this disease, you first need to correctly determine the causes of its occurrence. In the form of a warning of the disease, before planting the leaves, the plant should be sprayed with a 1% Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes, “HOM” or “Abiga-Peak”. Any mechanical damage to the tree trunk should be decontaminated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with garden var.
This fungal disease is characterized by the appearance of small dark brown spots on the outer leaf surfaces. On the reverse side of these spots, pink-white deposits form, which are a source of spores that infect the remaining leaves and fruits. On the infected berries, indented spots of a dark yellow color are formed, pubescent with a whitish coating.
The disease manifests itself actively in early June and leads to early fall of leaves, significantly worsening the ability of cherries to withstand winter cold.For the treatment of this disease, spraying with the same Bordeaux mixture and subsequent treatment in the summer and autumn with the Chorus agent are effectively used.
Did you know? One of the best food colors is prepared from cherry berries. At the same time, strangely enough, from the dark red fruits a dye of green color is obtained.
This disease is also fungal, affecting all stone fruits. It is characterized by the formation on the leaf surfaces of many small spots of reddish color with raspberry fringing. Then, the affected leaf tissue disappears, forming numerous holes on the leaf. With the further spread of the disease, the berries are also affected, on which are formed a tuberous dark red spots. As a result, the fruits undergo deformation, dry out and become unusable.They fight this disease similarly to the treatment of coccomycosis of cherries.
A consequence of this fungal disease is the formation of yellow-brown spots framed by a fuzzy border on the foliage in mid-summer. Deciduous tissue exposed to necrosis leads to yellowing and drying of leaves and their early fall, which, in turn, entails a decrease in winter hardiness of cherries.
To combat this disease in the summer, spraying is carried out using the following means:
- Abiga Peak;
With brown spotting (phylostictosis) caused by fungi, round yellow-brown spots with a dark border are formed on the cortex. The affected parts of the cortex are necrosis, crack and fall out, forming indentations. Foliage on a sick cherry is yellowing and falling prematurely. Measures to combat this problem are similar to the treatment for ascochitic spotting.
With septoria cherries, its ovaries and young fruits are affected. On the berries, small and slightly indented spots of brown color are formed, as a result of which the unripe cherry fruits fall prematurely.The ripe berries affected by the fungus are significantly deformed and lose their taste and marketability.
The vast majority of diseases affecting the cherry tree can be prevented in a timely manner by implementing preventive measures, for which there are various ways. This is especially true for noncommunicable diseases., which almost entirely depend on the observance of the agrotechnical rules for the cultivation of cherries.
Effectively prevent infectious diseases of the fungal and bacterial nature of preventive spraying. Usually they are held in the spring before the start of sap flow.
To do this, use solutions:
- urea - based on 700 g of the product per 10 liters of water;
- Bordeaux mixture - in the ratio of 100 g per 10 l of water;
- copper sulfate - in the same ratio;
- the drug "HOM" - according to the instructions;
- the drug "Abiga-Peak" - according to the instructions.
Pruning of dried affected branches
The timely removal of dried branches from the tree is important. This is especially true for dry branches that have signs of infection. Such parts of the cherry may be carriers of fungal spores or bacteria, which is fraught with a disease of a healthy part of the tree.Each removal of the branches should be accompanied by operational disinfection of the cut or saw cut with a solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate and coating it with garden var.
In addition, it is necessary to immediately remove prematurely fallen leaves and unripe fruits, which are most often also sources of infection. Preventive measures also include periodic digging of trunks.
Important! The rapid spread of the disease contributes to excessive thickening of the crown of the tree, which should not be allowed.
In addition to the preventive chemicals mentioned above, drugs that strengthen the immune system of cherry trees and increase their resistance to adverse growing conditions are very useful. The most effective in this regard is the use of Ecoberin and Zircon.
Caring for a cherry tree is associated with additional efforts to prevent diseases, which this plant has a lot of. However, the great taste and wonderful appearance of healthy cherry berries pays for all efforts to grow them.