Red Fri cultivation and care
An apple tree is usually of particular interest to gardeners. For the cultivation of Red Free varieties, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with its botanical description, planting characteristics and subtleties of care in order to obtain a good crop.
Botanical description of the apple tree
The apple tree belongs to the genus of deciduous trees and shrubs. Family - Pink. Variety Red Free is relatively young. It was created by breeders of the United States of America by crossing a domestic apple tree and a hybrid 821. The variety belongs to the late summer.
The apple tree is medium-sized with a spreading, rare and irregularly rounded crown. The maximum height of an adult tree is 4 m. The variety is distinguished by its early maturity.
Important! Fruits the tree begins at 3–4th year of life.
The leaves are small in size dark green. The outer side of the sheet is glossy, and the back is grayish in color.
100 g of fruit pulp contains:
- solids - 12.5%,
- sugar - 8.7%
- titratable acids - 0.9%,
- ascorbic acid - 4.7 mg,
- vitamin P - 54.4 mg.
The weight of the fruit ranges from 120 to 150 g. The shape of the fruit is round and aligned. The apples are smooth to the touch, with an average skin thickness. The skin itself is smooth and dense. The peel is inherent in a dark red, striped blush on a significant surface of the fruit. By taste, the flesh is tender, juicy and fragrant. Tasting assessment of the quality of the fetus of 5 points is 4.7.
Advantages and disadvantages of the apple variety
- The Red Free variety has some advantages over other varieties, namely:
- regular fruiting and high productivity;
- immunity to scab;
- excellent taste;
- average level of frost resistance and drought tolerance.
- Among the disadvantages of the variety are the following:
- low resistance to powdery mildew;
- low pollen viability, therefore, artificial pollination should be carried out;
- the need to perform chemical or manual normalization, since when the tree is overloaded with ovary, the fruits become small.
Pollination occurs by insects, and the ovary is formed in 10-15%. Pollen has a very low viability, only 37%. To obtain a crop, cross-pollination is necessary; for this, varieties such as Prima, James Greve and Teremok should be planted nearby.
Did you know? The largest apple managed to grow in 2005, the Japanese Chisato Iwasaki. The weight of the fruit was 1.85 kg.
Landing and subtleties of care
Subject to all the rules of planting and care, you can collect a generous and healthy crop. Before planting, it is necessary to determine the optimal time for planting seedlings, a suitable place for the future garden and prepare a planting pit. The ripening of fruits is influenced by the region and weather conditions. The ripeness of apples occurs in the first or second decade of August.
Optimal landing times
Landing work is affected by the choice of terrain on which the future garden will be located. In the southern region young animals are planted in the ground in the autumn.
The choice of location for the future garden is influenced by the geographical location and landscape. Redfree should be grown on the south side of the garden. In this regard, the apple tree should not be planted near different buildings.
Did you know? The smallest apple was bred in New Zealand. The size of the fruit does not exceed 40–50 mm.
The depth of the groundwater should be at least 3 m. For better fruit tree growth, chernozem or loam with neutral acidity is suitable. The use of clay or sandy soil will lead to drying out or to waterlogging, which will negatively affect the growth of the apple tree.
Landing pit preparation
For a good rooting of an apple tree seedling, it should be planted in a previously prepared place.
In this case, you must adhere to the basic rules:
- the place of future planting should be well-lit and protected from drafts;
- the planting pit must be cleaned of harmful weeds and at least 1 m in diameter;
- organic fertilizers, potassium salt and superphosphate must first be added to the pit.
To plant a seedling in the soil correctly, it is recommended to place it in the middle of a previously prepared hole, carefully spread the roots and sprinkle with the necessary substrate.
Important! It is advisable to drive a peg into the middle of the hole in advance, to which the seedling should be tied. In conclusion, it is recommended to form a near-stem circle and water the plant abundantly.
The distance between the plants should be 4 m, and between the rows - 5 m. During the planting of young animals in the ground, it is not recommended to use not overripe manure and nitrogen fertilizers, since they reduce the survival rate of the tree.
The crown of the apple tree is not thick and sparse. Trim should be damaged or inwardly directed branches, as they depart from the trunk at an angle of 85 degrees.
Pruning is recommended annually, especially in 3-4 years of life, since the plant forms a crown. It is advisable to carry out the procedure in the fall.
After planting a young tree in the soil, it is recommended to pay attention to the irrigation scheme. The plant is watered three times during the season - during the budding period, during the ripening of the fruits, in the autumn period. Autumn watering will prevent damage to the tree in winter.
When watering an old plant, it must be remembered that the number of poured water buckets is equal to the age of the crop. Moisturize the earth around the perimeter of the crown of the tree.
When replenishing an apple tree, you should adhere to all agricultural standards. An overabundance and deficiency of nutrients will adversely affect the culture: resistance to pests and diseases decreases, the yield decreases.
Did you know? In Rochester, the longest apple peel of an apple was cut in 1976. Its length was 52 meters.
To get good yields, you need to adhere to a specific feeding scheme:
- Early spring top dressing - from the second decade of March to the second decade of April. During this period, you can use urea at the rate of 300 g per 3 buckets of water - for an adult tree and 150 g per 1 bucket of water - a young apple tree. You can use organics, for this it is necessary to dissolve 3 buckets of humus in 3 buckets of water - for an adult tree and 1 bucket of organics per 1 bucket of water - for seedlings after planting.
- Summer dressing - The first and second decade of June. To feed this, the gardener needs to dissolve 150 g of superphosphate, 120 g of potassium sulfate and 2.5 l of previously dissolved bird droppings in 30 l of water.
- The first autumn is August-September. This species is necessary to restore strength after abundant fruiting. You can use a solution prepared on the basis of mullein (dissolve 3 kg in 3 buckets of water) or a solution based on superphosphate and potassium sulfate (300 g of each element per 30 l of water).
- The second autumn - September-October. Prepare a solution based on nitrophosphate at the rate of 150 g per 30 l of water.
Important! For a young plant (1–3 years of growth) digging depth is 20 cm. For an adult culture, one bayonet bayonet is enough.
Pest and Disease Control Methods
To protect the plant from pests and diseases, regular preventive chemical treatments are required.
Red Free is resistant to diseases typical of an apple tree, however, it can still become infected with the following:
- Scab. It appears in the form of olive spots in the lower part of the plant. To prevent their occurrence, it is recommended to treat it with fungicides containing sulfur or lime. If the problem has already arisen, then it can be eliminated by treating the trunk circle with a solution of 10% ammonium nitrate.
- Bacterial burn. It is characterized by the appearance of brown spots. For prevention, fertilizer should be applied in early spring. To eliminate a burn that has already occurred, it is recommended to dilute 1 ampicillin ampoule in a bucket of water and spray the tree with the resulting liquid at each stage of the growing season. In addition, you can use other drugs, such as Fitolavin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Ofloxacin, Gentamicin.
- Powdery mildew. First, a white spider web appears on the back of the leaves, then this leads to their drying. At the same time, small black dots begin to spread on the fruits. To avoid this, it is recommended to plant trees at a sufficient distance from each other. To combat the problem, it is recommended to spray with a fungicide solution: 3-5 times throughout the summer (1 time in 12-15 days).
The apple tree is also subject to attack by such insects:
- Apple Mothfly. A fly 6 mm long infects the fruit, digging into the fruit, forming passages in it and violating the integrity of the shell. For active insect control, it is recommended to use such drugs as Atom, Ditox, Dimetoat, Rogor-S, Tod, Fufanon, Zolon, Sirocco, Pirinex, Fosban "and others.
- Apple Blossom. The beetle eats the buds of a tree, laying up to 100 eggs in them. The larvae grow and begin to eat the structural elements of the flower (pistil and stamens), as a result of which the buds never open. To eliminate the insect, it is recommended to attach a bunch of hay saturated with karbofos to the top of the trunk.
- Apple-tree coppers. An insect 2.5 mm long sucks the juice from the tree through the leaves, which contributes to the withering of the apple tree. It is recommended to treat the tree with the Decis preparation before flowering, while diluting 1 ampoule (2 ml) in 10 l of water.
Tips from experienced gardeners
Many gardeners grow this fruit for a long time, so you need to familiarize yourself with their main tips regarding caring for the tree and the process itself:
- If there is sandy soil in your garden, then pour loamy soil at the bottom of the pit for planting with a 10 cm layer, after mixing it with humus in equal proportions. So nutrients can have access to the roots of the plant.
- During planting, do not use fresh manure and fertilizers containing nitrogen, so as not to reduce the survival rate of the seedling.
- Spray the plants with a fungicide solution before the buds bloom to prevent diseases and pests.
During the cultivation of the Redfree, Redstar and other varieties of apples, it must be remembered that with proper and timely care it will bring a good harvest. It is recommended to choose the right place for planting and prepare the planting pit, as well as provide top dressing and watering the tree to achieve this result.