Description and features of growing apple varieties Tatyana
Given the rather large varietal variety of apples, the main share of breeding works is aimed at fixing signs that make the species resistant to environmental conditions, as well as yield indicators. A striking example of such an activity is the variety Tatyana, which will be discussed in this article.
Variety breeding history
The variety is quite new and comes from Yekaterinburg. Depending on the place of growth, apple trees of the Sverdlovsk and Ural breeding were bred. In the first case, work was carried out to consolidate the sign of resistance to scab, in the second case, frost resistance.
Description of the tree and fruits
The plant is tall and reaches a height of about 5 m. Over the year, the shoots are extended by 45-60 cm. The crown is sprawling, the branches are covered with green foliage curved along the longitudinal vein.
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Fruits are large, on average, 100–110 g. Round, regular in shape, painted white, combined with a cherry shade that forms stripes on the surface.Covered with a smooth glossy peel. The pulp is light, has a delicate texture and a pleasant sweet taste.
When choosing a variety, it is first necessary to consider its productive qualities.
Disease and pest resistance
The apple tree has an average degree of sensitivity to pathogens of diseases, as well as various kinds of pests. The danger of infection arises when the immunity of a plant is weakened, which arises as a result of violations of agricultural engineering rules. Powdery mildew is considered the most common ailment - a disease of fungal nature that affects all parts of the apple tree.
The main sign is the presence of white plaque on foliage and branches. Over time, their surface darkens, curls and stops growing. To treat an ailment, the tree is sprayed with Brodsky liquid of 3% concentration, calculated as 10 l per adult plant and 2 l on young seedlings.
Important! In conditions of high humidity, the likelihood of the development of powdery mildew increases significantly.
Drought and winter hardiness
The variety is resistant to prolonged and severe frosts, moreover, it easily tolerates sudden changes in temperature in early spring. It also tolerates drought conditions, requires rare but plentiful watering.
Fruit ripening period
The variety is autumn, blooms from late April to early May, and ripe fruit falls in mid-September. Ripening is uniform.
Fruiting and Yield
The first crop is harvested on the 3-4th year of apple tree growth, after which the fruit setting process is repeated annually. Productivity with age takes on a variable character, that is, high rates alternate with low. From one tree you can collect from 90 to 150 kg of fruit.
The peel of apples is quite dense, which significantly affects their marketability - the fruits tolerate transportation well.
Apple tree Tatyana is very fond of sunlight, so grow a variety in well-lit places, while it is important to protect the plant from drafts.
Important! People suffering from stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers need to stop eating apples, as they increase the acidity of the digestive juices.
Light loamy soil is ideal, if clay soil, it must be mixed with sand in a ratio of 2: 1. If the soil is sandy in nature, peat and humus are added to it in an amount of 2: 1: 1.
Timing and landing scheme
Seedlings are planted both in the fall, before the onset of frost, and in the spring until the buds open.The tree is quite large, so you need to calculate the area norms in advance. So, a plot of 4x4 m in size is allocated for one seedling. A pit 70 cm deep and about 1 m in diameter is dug under each tree.
Sprinkle the bottom of the recess with drainage, it can be a small stone, a nutshell, etc. After which a fertile mixture is introduced.
To do this, mix:
- 3 parts of humus;
- 1 part superphosphate;
- 0.5 parts of potassium chloride.
Then grown according to the agricultural technology of this variety.
Watering the apple tree at least 4 times per season, depending on climatic conditions. Before watering, you need to form a recess around the trunk at a distance of 50 cm, this will eliminate the spread of fluid in the area. About 3-4 buckets of water are allocated to one young tree, 6–8 for adult plants.
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After each procedure, it is necessary to loosen the soil of the trunk circle, while removing weed grass. Then sprinkle with mulch: sawdust, peat, humus.
In order for the tree to grow actively and give rich harvests, it is important not to forget about regular feeding. For the first time in a season, active ingredients are introduced in mid-April.
During this period, it is important to stimulate the growth of the apple tree, for this, nitrogen-containing substances are used, per 1 tree:
- 500 g of urea;
- 30 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 30 g nitroammophoski;
- 5 buckets of humus.
All of the above components are made under digging.
During flowering, use an aqueous solution of the following components, 10 l is required:
- 100 g of superphosphate;
- 60 g of potassium sulfate;
- 2 l chicken droppings;
- 1/2 bucket of manure;
- 300 g of urea.
On one tree, on average, 4 buckets of mortar are needed.After the apple tree fades, it is necessary to apply 30 l of fertilizer, which includes:
- 500 g nitrofoski;
- 10 g of dry sodium humate;
- 100 liters of water.
Important! In order for top dressing to be as effective as possible, fertilizers must be applied over the entire area of the trunk circle, the size of which should be equal to the circumference of the crown.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Every spring, the crown is cut, this event is carried out before the start of the growing season, but under conditions of stable plus temperature. First of all, old and dried shoots are removed. Then, according to the sparse-tiered scheme, there are branches growing at an acute angle relative to the trunk.Basic principles of pruning an apple tree
As mentioned above, the variety is resistant to frost, however, this does not cancel a number of works aimed at preparing for wintering. Using a metal brush, it is necessary to carefully clean the trunk and main branches of dead bark and lichens. Then, at the base of the stem, form an earth mound about 40 cm high.
Harvesting and storage
Technical ripeness of fruits occurs in mid-September, since the process is uniform, you can collect all the apples at a time. Remove the fruit with the stem and lay in layers in a well-ventilated container.
It is important to put the fruits so that the cuttings do not damage the integrity of the remaining apples, for this they are piled with paper. Optimal storage temperatures are considered to be + 5 ° С. In such conditions, apples will lie for about 5 months.Every year, scientists, breeders are developing new varieties of apples, endowed with a number of advantages. Mainly - resistance to weather conditions and pathogenic microorganisms, while not inferior to others in terms of productivity.
A striking example of such achievements can be considered apples of the variety Tatyana, the cultivation features of which are discussed in detail above.