How to treat cherry moniliosis?
Cherries often suffer from moniliosis (monilial burn or fruit rot) - a dangerous fungal infection that spreads to all parts of the plant. At the same time, they dry and appear burnt. Next, we will tell you how to deal with this problem, and what preventive measures will help to avoid it.
Symptoms of a lesion of a monilial burn
The reason for the appearance of fruit rot on cherries is fungal spores Monilia cinerea. This is a disease that affects fruit trees, causing decay, wrinkling, and drying of fruits and other parts of the plant (buds, ovaries, young foliage, and tops of branches).
Did you know? Among gardeners, children's plasticine is considered the best putty for cuts on trees: it is made strictly according to GOST so as not to cause allergies in children, therefore it is an ideal sealant for wounds on trees.
The disease is determined by the following external signs:
- yellowed and fallen before the foliage;
- drying out of buds is observed;
- berries do not develop and do not grow;
- the color of the cherries changes; they become dark and rot;
- the flesh of the berries becomes bitter;
- rotten cherries partially crumble, and the rest are mummified and remain on the tree (sometimes several seasons in a row);
- a gray coating forms on the cortex;
- branches cover growths of a light gray hue;
- the diseased part of the plant takes on a “charred” appearance and is covered with black, underdeveloped branches.
Features of the treatment of the disease
An infection in the garden will be noticeable a week or two after the trees have faded. If you do not take measures to localize fruit rot, then in the next season, moniliosis will cover all the remaining healthy parts of the culture and spread to the rest of the trees. Comprehensive treatment in the early stages will prevent serious consequences.
An infection can be affected in several ways:
- chemical preparations;
- biological means;
- agrotechnical methods.
This group of drugs is represented by fungicides that disrupt the metabolic processes in the cells of the fungus.
Important! A feature of chemicals is the timely cessation of irrigation, since the fruits are able to absorb pesticides. They will be suitable for eating only 4 weeks after treatment.
Moniliosis should be controlled using the following drugs (according to instructions):
- Bordeaux fluid (1%). Use before and after budding, after cutting the affected branches.
- Inkstone. Processing is carried out after flowering.
- "Chorus." In the stage of “pinking” of buds and after the trees have faded.
- Topsin-M (1%). Sprayed at the beginning of flowering and after (with an interval of 1-2 weeks).
- Tsineb (0.4%). Processed before the flowering period.
To obtain the best effect from chemical mixtures, 30 g of laundry soap is added to 10 liters of solution.
Biological agents are less aggressive than chemical ones, because they are created using live bacterial material. They are a good alternative for irrigation of affected trees during fruit set and fruit ripening when chemical preparations cannot be carried out. Such drugs can be used for a long time, without harm to the fruit culture itself and humans.
Important! In the chemical and biological treatment of cherry trees from fungal infections, precautionary measures are mandatory. Spraying is carried out in dry and calm weather, using protective equipment (bathrobe, respirator and gloves).
Biological drugs that help in the fight against fruit rot:
- Fitosporin-M. The product is used after flowering and during the active formation of ovaries. Recommended dose: for 20 l of water - 40 ml of the drug.
- Alirin B The first treatment is carried out before budding, the second - after flowering, the third - after 14 days. The last time sprayed in the second decade of August. Dosage: add 1 tablet per 1 liter of water.
- "Fitolavin." It is necessary to treat the drug in the flowering phase, after it and at the time of fruit-bearing. For preventive purposes, they are processed during the ripening period of berries. Drug consumption: in 20 l of water dilute 40 ml of the product.
Agrotechnical measures in the fight against fruit rot:
- Avoid mechanical damage to trees.
- Treat garden wounds to any wound or place of cut.
- Regularly trim the crown to prevent thickening (harmful insects can find refuge in dense thickets).
- After leaf fall cherry trunks cover garden whitewash.
- Completely remove fallen leaves and branches.
- Use only varieties resistant to moniliosis for planting.
- For preventive purposes, regularly spray trees with copper sulfate.
- Regularly inspect trees and do sanitary pruning of shoots with damage.
- Parts of trees infected with moniliosis should be cut and burned.
- Means for treating trees must be alternated - in order to avoid addiction to the fungus.
Resistant Varieties to Disease
Moniliosis carries danger and closely related cultures, for example, felt cherry. Since this varietal variety was imported from China, humid climatic conditions are preferable for it, and this is a suitable environment for the development of moniliosis, which quite often affects these ornamental shrubs.
Penetrating into the garden, the fungus for several years completely weakens the culture. After flowering ends, the branches of the tree turn black, the foliage crumbles, and the shoots of the plant dry up from above. In winter, the affected areas become the localization site of the fungus, and in spring its spores are carried by the wind, infecting the entire garden.
To preserve the garden from damage to fruit trees by fruit rot, it is necessary when choosing seedlings of cherries to opt for disease-resistant species. It is also important to take into account the regionalization of species and to take into account the conditions most preferable for their cultivation.
Today, scientists have not yet bred cherries, which will be immune to fungal infections, although there are varieties with good indicators, successful survival in a temperate and warm climate, and are resistant to fruit rot.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself
Some varieties of cherries resistant to moniliosis:
- Cossack girl;
- Chocolate girl;
- A toy;
Cherries must be looked after in a timely manner. Like any disease in plants, fruit rot is easier to prevent than wasting energy on its localization. This will help the implementation of preventive irrigation with drugs and the timely formation of the crown.
Moniliosis in the advanced stage cannot be cured.
Treatment of plants for preventive purposes is carried out in two stages:
- for the first time, fungicides are sprayed at the time of laying the fruit buds (with the obligatory repetition of the procedure after 14 days);
- the second time the trees are treated after fruit harvest (repeat - twice more with an interval of 2 weeks).
To save cherries from fruit rot only by spraying will not succeed. A set of measures is needed, which involves trimming and destroying infected parts of trees. Weakened, infironous fungi, lichen shoots must be removed. They are cut off in late autumn or early spring, before the buds begin to bloom.
Did you know? The rejuvenating prunings of fruit crops solve several problems at once: the fruits become larger, the percentage of yield grows up to 50%, the resistance of trees to frost increases, and it becomes easier to process plants from diseases and parasites.
After flowering, a thorough inspection is necessary - in what condition are the trees. Slices should be performed correctly on the diseased site so that the infection cannot spread to healthy parts of the culture - towards the bottom of the plant: a dry branch is cut so that its gap with healthy buds is captured below the drying area.
Trimming weak branches will reduce the risk of fungus.
Tips from experienced gardeners
In order to recognize the threat of infection of cherries and other garden crops with a monilial burn in time, as well as successfully cope with this problem, you can use the recommendations of experienced gardeners.
- Before purchasing a seedling, carefully inspect the plant for any damage.
- Cherry should be planted on a well-ventilated hill, without close bedding of groundwater.
- You should not save on the plot area, planting trees close to each other, but it is better to place them at a distance of at least 4 m from one another.
- It is necessary to feed cherries with mineral fertilizers in a timely manner, as well as water on time, which will increase the immunity of trees to various fungi.
- After detecting mechanical damage and wounds caused by rodents, it is necessary to clean them to solid wood and disinfect.
- Every year preparing the garden for winter, it is necessary to carry out the sanitary formation of tree crowns: dried, damaged branches partially cut off with living tissue, and immediately cover the sections with oil paint or garden varnish.
- Collect fallen leaves, affected branches, mummified fruits, and burn them.
- Dig the soil around the trees in the fall, after a complete discharge of leaves.
Video: treatment and prevention of moniliosis
Monilial burn of cherries is a serious disease, because of which the garden can completely remain without crops, and sometimes even completely lose the trees themselves. To avoid this, it is important to adhere to the preventive measures outlined in the article. But if you still had to deal with this disease in your garden, it is important to timely treat each culture with drugs on a chemical and biological basis.