Features of the processing of apple trees from pests and diseases
Almost no garden is complete without apple trees. How to perform the basic processing of the tree from pests and diseases is described below.
Why process apple trees?
To collect a full-fledged crop and lay the foundation for fruiting for next year, it is necessary to maintain the health of the tree. The apple tree is attacked by many fruit pests, which can lead to productivity losses of up to 90%. Sensitivity or resistance to various diseases is one of the characteristics of varieties, however, adverse weather conditions or lack of proper care can affect this indicator.
Did you know? Fungicides entering bee feed, — one of the reasons for the collapse of the colonies of these insects. Substances reduce the resistance of bees to the Varroa tick, and a small percentage of some fungicides is a food attractant for bees.
Timely processing of the apple tree allows you to prevent the development of the disease or significantly reduce the degree of its impact and the damage done. Modern drugs have a wide spectrum of action and do not harm human health, if you strictly follow the instructions for use.
Spring apple processing
Spring care for the apple tree consists in the preventive treatment of the tree. Start work immediately after the snow melts, before the dissolution of the kidneys.
Pruning apple tree
Spring pruning is preferable for those varieties whose frost resistance is lower than average, as well as for gardens located in harsh climatic conditions (Ural, Siberia, etc.) Pruning should be done before the sap flow and the active appearance of buds, around the beginning of March. A sharp decrease in daily temperatures is no longer desirable at this time. The main task of spring pruning is thinning of a dense crown and shortening of shoots, removal of frozen parts.
Need to cut:
- shoots, whose growth is directed vertically or to the trunk, in the center of the crown;
- shoots interfering with the growth of the main branches;
- dry and damaged branches.
For young apple trees, forming pruning is performed according to the following scheme:
- An annual seedling is cut at a height of about 1 m from the soil level, if there are no lateral branches. Otherwise, the trunk is cut to 60–80 cm, and the side branches to 40 cm.
- For a two-year-old apple tree, from 3 to 5 strong shoots with a maximum horizontal direction of growth are selected, and the rest are cut. The central trunk is left 4 kidneys longer.
- On the 3rd and 4th year, shoots are cut out, aimed at the center of the crown and shorten the main branches.
Proper whitewashing trunks
Whitewashing of fruit trees is performed in early spring and autumn.
Spring painting is an update of the autumn and sets such goals:
- protection against strong bark heating during the day, which leads to early sap flow and the possibility of its subsequent freezing on a cold night, with subsequent tears and cracks;
- prevention of fungal diseases and the control of larvae of pests wintering in the bark.
Based on the stated goals, it is clear that it is necessary to complete whitewashing in late February and early March (in the north until early April). Before whitewashing, an adult tree should be carefully prepared, clearing its bark from lichens, moss and dead sections.
The sequence of work should be as follows:
- Unclip the trunk circle from plant debris. Spread a film or other covering under the tree, on which all the removed parts will fall.
- To scrub moss and lichens, exfoliating old bark from the trunk and skeletal branches with a wooden or plastic scraper.
- Deep cracks in the close-fitting crust should be cleaned inside and filled with garden varieties or special pastes.
- Sanitary pruning of the crown by removing dry or damaged branches.
- Collect fallen waste and burn away from the garden.
In dry weather, disinfection is performed with a solution of copper or iron sulfate, with special preparations according to the instructions or infusion of wood ash. After 2-3 days, you can conduct whitewashing. Not all mixtures are suitable for young seedlings, whose bark is still too tender and should provide air access.
The gardener can choose one of the following options:
- acrylic whitewash industrial production are characterized by good adhesion to the crust. They often add ingredients against fungi and bacteria. Not suitable for young apple trees, because they do not let air through;
- water emulsion mixture effectively protects from the sun, and the addition of copper sulfate will become a disease prevention;
- simple mix of lime, clay and copper sulphate (in a ratio of 1: 2: 0.25) is suitable for young trees;
- old proven recipe contains 1 kg of clay and manure, 2 kg of lime and 250 g of copper sulfate;
- another option consists of 10 liters of water, 500 g of iron sulfate and 2 kg of freshly slaked lime. After thorough mixing, add 1 tbsp. a spoonful of carbolic acid to repel rodents.
The first spraying is carried out in dry weather, when the average temperature in the daytime reaches + 4 ... + 5 ° C, and at night it will not fall below 0 ° C. The apple tree at this time still does not show noticeable signs of awakening, and complete processing of the tree will maximize the removal of fungal spores and even sleeping pest larvae.
Important! The most effective will be the alternation of drugs in different phases of treatment. This will avoid possible addiction of pathogens to the active substance.
For this, Bordeaux liquid, a mixture of urea with copper or iron sulfate, the drug "Prophylactin" is suitable. The further processing schedule is focused on the phases of tree development.
Green Cone Phase
The period of swelling of the kidneys, when a green "bump" appeared. At this time, fungicidal and insecticidal preparations are used, for example, Aktara, Horus, Biotlin, etc. Several preparations can be mixed, if this is provided for in their instructions.
Traps will help provide an additional barrier to pests:
- glue belts on trunks;
- glue traps on the branches;
- pheromone traps.
If an attack by an apple beetle is detected, mechanical protection can be applied. In the early cold morning you should spread the film on the trunk circle, and then gently shake the apple tree (you can lightly tap on the branches with a stick) and shake off harmful weevils.Currently, there are more than a hundred different pheromones of harmful insects that were created specifically to effectively combat specific types of insects - pests.
The phase of the "pink bud"
The period of the bud that has not yet been opened, but has already been put forward. At this time, Bordeaux fluid or vitriol can no longer be used. Apply such drugs as “Skor”, “Rayok”, “Aktara”, “Karate”. If the weather is warm, with temperatures above + 10 ° C, you can use biological preparations Fitoverm, Lepidocide, etc.
Important! It is enough to process young not flowering trees 3 times, having missed the stage of the “pink bud".
The pea-ovary phase
The period of formation of small ovaries, at the end of flowering. Wood processing during this period should be comprehensive, from diseases and pests. Recommended preparations are “Aliot”, “Kinmix”, “Sharpei”, as well as biological “Fitolavin”, etc.
Recommendations for spring spraying of apple trees
Effective spraying should be carried out according to the instructions for each drug. It is especially important to consider the temperature at which the active substance will act.
The following points are also important:
- on the packaging of the drug indicates the necessary safety measures that must be followed. Protective clothing and accessories must be intact;
- spraying on a sunny day will be less effective as the liquid dries quickly. The best day for work is dry and cloudy, while it is optimal to leave the garden early in the morning or after sunset;
- pruning is done first, so that later the sections of the slices are also covered with protective drops;
- when the flowers are open, processing is not carried out so as not to harm the bees;
- a solution of drugs must be filtered through a filter, otherwise you can spoil the sprayer;
- spraying is carried out repeatedly if it started to rain immediately after treatment;
- if possible, it is better to perform treatment with insecticides and fungicides with an interval of at least a day to reduce the load on the plant.
How to care for an apple tree in the fall from pests and diseases?
Sequential processing of wood and soil will prepare the apple tree for winter cold and significantly reduce the number of wintering pests.
The signal to the beginning of pruning is a complete drop of foliage. The air temperature should be higher than 0 ° C, since after -5 ° C the wood of the apple tree becomes brittle. In the northern regions (for example, in Siberia), autumn pruning is not performed due to the insufficient duration of autumn heat and the high probability of freezing of unstretched sections. Avoid autumn pruning of non-frost resistant varieties.
During this period, it is necessary to perform sanitary and thinning pruning. Forming pruning of the apple tree should be performed in spring. Sections with a diameter of more than 3 cm must be treated with a protective compound. In autumn, it is better to use oil paint, since with a decrease in temperature, special pastes and garden var begin to exfoliate.Sanitary pruning.
Spraying the tree in autumn is performed after the onset of the dormancy stage, when all the leaves have fallen. If cropping is planned, it should be done before processing. The air temperature during the day should not fall below 0 ° C.
Before spraying, the area of the trunk circle should be cleaned. The optimal time for work is a dry and calm morning. Not only the crown is sprayed with the selected drug, but also the earth in the near-stem circle. In this case, it is necessary to protect lawn grass and conifers if they grow near the apple tree.
Important! When choosing a drug, its working temperature should be taken into account, since many active substances act only from + 10 ° C.
For autumn spraying, you can use the following drugs:For autumn processing, you need to choose one of the proposed options, and next year change it to another.
Did you know? Bordeaux liquid was created to protect the vineyards from theft, because the blue hue of the berries after the treatments looked like mold. The protective properties of copper from fungus was discovered later.
Autumn whitewash performs the same functions as spring. Most gardeners consider autumn stem processing the most important.The process of preparing the bark and options for the composition of whitewash corresponds to the described algorithm for spring whitewashing. Work should be performed after completion of leaf fall at a small plus air temperature (+ 2 ... + 3 ° C).
It is advisable to choose a dry period of autumn so that the whitewashing is not washed off by heavy rainfall. Instead of whitewashing, the newly planted young trees can be covered with roofing material, roofing material, lapnik or other materials.
Feeding apple trees in autumn
Autumn top dressing helps plants strengthen the root system and increase its resistance to frost and various diseases. Fertilizers are applied after harvesting, when the tree has not yet retired and there are at least 2–4 weeks before frost. During this period, only phosphorus-potassium fertilizers should be used. The concentration of drugs will depend on the age of the tree. In addition to industrial mixtures, wood ash solution can be used as a potassium source.Autumn top dressing is root when nutrients are introduced into the trunk circle. Liquid fertilizers are optimal for young trees. Dry top dressing is successfully dissolved by precipitation. The drug must be scattered along the diameter of the crown, departing from the trunk about 50 cm, and digging the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm. The earth at this time should be moist, so if there was no rain, watering may be necessary.
How to prepare for winter?
The following agricultural measures are important for wintering a tree:
- water-charging irrigation for summer varieties is carried out after harvesting, and for autumn-winter varieties after the final formation of fruits;
- 1-2 weeks before frosts, it is necessary to carry out additional mulching of the trunk circle with compost or manure;
- in late autumn, the trunks of young trees should be wrapped with protective material (lapnik, roofing paper, cardboard, etc.);
- pest traps and belts must be removed and destroyed, and it is recommended that hangers for wintering birds be hung on a tree.
Processing of apple trees in spring and autumn allows comprehensively to prevent various diseases and fight pests. A healthy tree shows better yield and fruiting longevity.