Features of planting and care of cherries Volochaevka
Due to the changing climate and unfavorable external factors, not all varieties of cherries reveal themselves fully, which leads gardeners to search for new sustainable species. Today, the article will consider Volochaevka cherries: its description and characteristics, as well as the nuances of growing.
In 1997, a new cherry variety called Volochaevka was registered in the state register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation. Selection work was carried out by a group of breeders, led by A. I. Evstratov. As the "parent" varieties made cherries Vladimir and Lyubskaya.
Did you know? When Prince Yuri Dolgoruky laid Moscow, cherries were the only fruit tree that at that time was growing in these parts.
It is noteworthy that both varieties have been known to gardeners since the 18th century. The resulting variety is grown everywhere, although it is recommended for the central region of the Russian Federation.
Description and distinguishing features of the variety
The popularity of Volochaevka is largely due to the resistance of the variety to one of the most common cherry diseases - coccomycosis. It should also be taken into account that in the central regions for which the culture is recommended, it reveals its productivity as much as possible.
The medium-sized tree reaches a maximum of 3.5 m in height. The compact, spherical type of crown is densely covered with foliage. Large oval leaf plates with a strong petiole, a serrated edge and pronounced veins are painted dark green.
Last year's shoots are brown, young branches are green-red in color. Flowering begins in early May, before the leaves bloom.
Last year's and fruit-type branches are fruitful. The fruiting period, depending on the region and climate, is from the beginning to the end of July. The fruits are dark red in color, round-oval, weighing up to 4.5 g. The pulp is juicy, fleshy, easily separated from the bone, the taste is sweet and sour.
Due to the dessert taste and sugary juice of a pleasant color, cherries are considered universal in use. It is healthy and tasty in fresh form and is perfect for different types of processing.
Volochaevka is an excellent option for small areas of the garden, since it does not require planting a nearby pollinator tree. The self-fertile variety bears fruit regardless of weather conditions, the presence of pollinating insects and other related crops.
The choice of seedlings for planting
Planting material is better to choose in a nursery, where you can get reliable information about the age of the seedling, the type of stock.
Criterias of choice:
- age - 1-2 years;
- height - for one-year-olds - up to 80 cm, for two-year-olds - up to 110 cm;
- the state of the cortex - the integrity of the cover, the absence of cracks, spots, even color;
- roots - the length of root shoots from 20 to 25 cm, flexible, without damage;
- the trunk is strong and even.
Important! A seedling exceeding the height set for its age was unequivocally grown with abuse of nitrogen fertilizing. Such material does not have good resistance to disease and cold.
It is better to acquire grafted specimens: they enter the fruiting period earlier and bring more harvest.
Choosing the right place on the site
It is important for successful cultivation to choose not only a site suitable for the parameters, but also the neighbors.
- Adverse neighbors for cherries:
These crops have common pests. You should also not plant cherries next to tall trees: a pear, ornamental coniferous trees, and an apple tree.Besides the fact that they will obscure Volochaevka, they have a too sprawling root system, so the cherry will be deprived of food and moisture.
The southeast and south sides of the plot are better and longer illuminated. Ideally, cherries grow well on the slopes, you can make an embankment on a flat surface when planting. When shaded, even slightly, the taste of the berries will be more acidic than sweet. It is good if the tree is protected by a hedge from the wind.
Closely located groundwater poses a risk of root rot, so their location should be no closer than 1.5 m to the soil surface. The culture develops well on drained, fertile soils with an acid reaction closer to the neutral value (6.5–7 pH).
Landing site is prepared in the fall. Acidic soil must be limped: 400-500 g of lime is added per 1 m² before digging a hole during digging. If the soil structure is heavy, poorly transmits moisture, it is necessary to make drainage from a mixture of gravel and sand about 10-15 cm high.
They dig a hole with dimensions of 60 × 60 × 60 cm. If several trees are planted, the distance between the holes is left at 3 m. The soil extracted from the hole is mixed with humus (15 kg) and wood ash (0.5 kg), placed on the bottom.The landing pit is dug with dimensions of 60 × 60 × 60 cm.Before planting, seedlings are also prepared:
- Roots inspect, remove damaged areas.
- Dry root shoots moisturize by placing in water for a couple of hours.
- Then placed in a solution of any root stimulant for 6-8 hours.
Step-by-step landing technology
Autumn planting of cherry Volochaevka is practiced only in the southern regions. A more suitable season for planting a variety is spring (April). The procedure must be performed before the kidneys swell.Sequencing:
- A peg is placed in the center of the hole.
- A hill of soil 30–40 cm high is poured at the bottom.
- A sapling is placed on top, the roots are straightened, sprinkled with earth.
- Before compaction of the surface, make sure that the root neck of the seedling is above the surface of the soil.
- The seedling is tied to a peg and watered with 3 buckets of water.
- The surface of the trunk circle is mulched with compost.
Did you know? Among the cherry trees have their own champions and centenarians. In England, cherry grows, whose age is one and a half centuries, and height — more than 13 m.
The variety is unpretentious in care, but this does not mean that it does not need to be paid attention. The procedures are simple, standard for fruit trees.
Watering the tree is needed three times a season, 40-50 liters per barrel circle. The first watering is needed during flowering, if the period turned out to be dry, then you need to carry out two procedures so that the color does not crumble. The second time the tree is watered when the fruits are poured with juice, the volume of liquid is the same.The site is watered for the third time in the fall after harvest to nourish the soil with moisture for the winter. Additional irrigation can be carried out in a drought or by applying dry complex mineral fertilizers.
The soil on which the cherry grows must be loose, so that the root system better absorbs beneficial elements and moisture, so that oxygen is received in sufficient quantities. The procedure of loosening should be carried out after each irrigation and rainfall.
The first time fertilizers are applied 2 or 3 years after planting. In the spring, the tree needs compounds with a predominance of nitrogen. To make, they dig an annular groove in the near-stem circle and add an aqueous solution of urea: 10 g / 5 l per tree.
In the second half of summer, 300 g of double superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate are introduced into the soil. In autumn, compost is added to the near-furrow furrow, up to 20 kg under a tree.
In the spring, before budding, preventive spraying is carried out with copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid (1%).In the summer, biological treatments are used, such as Trichodermin or Bactofit.
- An excellent prevention will be plants containing volatile, planted next to the cherry, for example:
In autumn, to protect against pests, trees are sprayed with a weak solution of urea: 10 g / 10 l of water.
In early spring, before the movement of the juices, a formative pruning of the tree is carried out. To successfully develop the crown, 10–15 skeletal branches are left. All shoots growing inside the crown are subject to pruning. Leave promising branches growing up. Bare shoots as they grow, cut to the beginning of the branch point.
Important! Pruning is carried out on the ring: there should be no concave pit, no hemp at the place of cut.
Slices are treated with garden var. For sanitary purposes, frozen, broken or damaged branches are removed.
Variety Volochaevka calmly tolerates frosts to -25 ° C, but when lowered to -30 ° C, the fruit buds freeze.
Preparing for wintering consists of several actions:
- Mulch is placed in the trunk circle.
- The lower part of the trunk is wrapped with hard material, such as roofing material, to protect against rodents.
- If the region is characterized by very cold winters, agrospan is pulled over the mulch, additionally covered with fir spruce branches.
Pest and Disease Control
Subject to the rules of planting and prevention of difficulties in growing varieties is not observed. With the intervention of external factors or gardener's mistakes, damage to diseases or insects is possible.
In this case, such means of dealing with misfortunes are used:
- Coccomycosis - it affects the top of the leaf plate with dark brown spots, the bottom of the leaf with a dark coating, the berries can crumble en masse, have a deformed shape and marks on the peel. Treat a tree by spraying with a Bordeaux mixture (3%).
- Moniliosis and hole spotting - both diseases are fungal in nature. Moniliosis affects bark, foliage and berries with dense formations. The berries are crumbled as a result, not having time to ripen. Spotting has similar symptoms, therefore, disease control is carried out by the same means. Effective in this case, the drug "Topsin-M" (10 g / 10 l of water).
- Anthracnose - affects the surface of the berries with a pale pink coating and growths. As a treating agent, the drug “Polyram” (20 g / 10 l of water) is used, which trees are sprayed with three times, with an interval of 5 days.
- Aphid - destroys the foliage of the plant. Its danger is that the microscopic insect multiplies rapidly, forming entire colonies in a short time. They destroy the insect and its offspring by spraying with the Aktara preparation (1 g / 1.25 L of water).
- Weevil - destroys fruit buds, flowers and forming ovaries. Agravertin is effective against an insect, a solution for spraying is prepared in a proportion of 2 ml / 1 liter of water.
- Sawfly - this pest, as well as its larvae eat up the foliage. Methods of control - spraying with Inta-Vir (1 tablet / 10 l of water).
- Mole - The insect loves to feast on buds, flowers and foliage. Treatment: spraying with an aqueous Decis solution (1 g / 10 l).
Harvesting and storage
Fruiting Volochaevka begins with the 4th year of life. An adult tree gives a yield of up to 15 kg.
Cherry is not a crop whose fruits are picked early, because the berries do not ripen, remaining acidic. You can not give it and overripe, otherwise most of the fruits will crumble and rot. In the southern regions, the berries ripen in early July, in the central regions in the middle of the month, and in the northern climate at the end of July.
The collection is carried out in dry weather, morning or evening, when the sun is not too active. For storage or transportation, the cherry must be assembled together with the stalk or part of it. For further processing, the fruits can be plucked without a petiole. In this case, you need to consider that the berries will be stored for only 2-3 days, and then begin to deteriorate.
Important! 2 weeks before the expected harvest, trees should not be watered, otherwise the fruits will be watery.
If the harvesting of cherries fell during the rainy period, most likely the berries will be sour, and their shelf life is much shorter. Such a crop is best processed for winter harvesting.For storage, fruits with petioles are placed in wooden boxes and placed in a dry room at a temperature of 0 ... -2 ° C and air humidity of 90%.
The Volochaevka cherry variety is worthy of the attention of farmers: it has excellent taste characteristics, high annual yields and many other advantages. Even a beginner in gardening can cope with the cultivation of culture.