The main features of the planting and care of the Imrus apple tree
Imrus is one of the leaders among numerous winter apple varieties. He received his recognition due to stable fruiting, resistance to disease, hardiness to frost and adverse conditions, so this variety can be found both in private areas and in many large industrial plantings.
Description of apple variety Imrus
Imrus is a popular winter variety of apples, which was developed on the basis of the All-Russian Institute for Fruit Breeding. To obtain a variety, Antonovka vulgaris was crossed with a standard hybrid from winter varieties.
In 1988, Imrus seedlings were allocated to the elite class, after which they were tested, entered the State Register of the Russian Federation and received a recommendation on cultivation in the Central and Central Black Earth regions of the Russian Federation and Belarus. Imrus, for example, is ideal for planting in the suburbs with its temperate continental climate.
Apple trees of this variety from the age of four are able to produce up to 22 kilograms of fruit
The variety tree grows up to 4–5 m and is distinguished by a round, sprawling, medium-dense crown and a greenish-brown bark of the trunk with pronounced peeling. The main branches join the stem at an acute angle, are able to bend strongly. Branches of the variety are thin, elastic, lowered, with small conical buds.
The leaves have an oval elongated shape, edges with denticles and special helical tips. The upper surface of the sheet is smooth, shiny, with a slight wrinkle. Imrus blooms in early May with white flowers with a slight pink tint, collected in inflorescence brushes of 5-6 pcs.
Imrus apples are perfect for fresh consumption, and are also often used for preparing winter preparations, including mashed potatoes, compotes and juices
Imrus apples are oval, slightly ribbed, weighing 150-200 g. During harvesting, the fruits have a rich green hue, but during aging, they gain consumer ripeness and become light yellow. The peel of the fruit is thin, glossy, without wax plaque characteristic of many winter varieties. Small subcutaneous dots are clearly visible on it.
Important! For long-term storage in the basement or cellar, apples should be placed away from other fruits. Because they secrete a substance that causes the germination of shoots and the aging of other fruits.
The pulp of the fruits of the variety is dense, juicy, fine-grained, creamy with a soft sour-sweet taste and a characteristic fruity smell. Expert assessment of the taste of the variety - 4.4 points, and presentation - 4.3 points.
Pros and cons of the variety
- Apple-tree Imrus differs in such advantages:
- early maturity and good productivity;
- excellent resistance to frost;
- high resistance to scab;
- excellent commodity characteristics of apples;
- long-term preservation of the fruit.
The minuses of the variety include only a thin peel on ripe fruits, which reduces their level of transportability.
Imrus is a partially self-pollinated variety. As a result of selection, the pollen viability was in the range of 30–55%. That is, in the absence of third-party pollinators, no more than 20% of greenfinches will form on the apple tree, therefore, to reveal the full potential of the variety, other late-ripening apple trees must be planted in the neighborhood.
Winter varieties of apple trees also include:
The variety is characterized by early maturity and excellent yield.. Harvesting is carried out in the second decade of September, but it is not yet ready for consumption. When stored properly, after a few weeks, apples gain consumer maturity.Fully ripened fruits stand out for their bright yellow color.
The more intense the growth of the apple tree, the less fruiting
With the age of the tree, fruiting increases. So, on average, a 4-year-old seedling gives 9 kg of fruit, and an 8-year-old - 26 kg. With mass cultivation, mature Imrus apple trees will produce about 226 kg / ha per season.
- Apples have many useful properties:
- organic acids in combination with tannins help the intestines, eliminate flatulence;
- fiber cleanses the body and allows you to not feel hunger for a long time;
- ascorbic acid has a positive effect on the immune system;
- Vitamin C contained in dried leaves is brewed in the form of tea for diseases of the respiratory system;
- pectin acts as a mild natural laxative;
- the taste of apples helps to reduce the manifestations of toxicosis in pregnant women;
- Apple juice improves the digestion process and has a mild choleretic effect.
In addition, apples are often included in the diet for dieters. The low calorie content of this fruit allows you to use it in your daily diet. However, with gastritis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the use of fresh apples should be consulted with a doctor.
Planting the apple tree Imrus
Since the apple tree is zoned for temperate latitudes, its can be planted both in spring and autumn. Spring planting is carried out in late April or early May, when the soil warmed up well, and during the day the air temperature reached + 12 ... + 14 ° С. In autumn, seedlings are planted a few weeks before the frost arrives - approximately in September-October.
Did you know? According to traditional medicine, green apples should be eaten to strengthen teeth and gums, yellow ones to maintain immunity, and red ones to improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
For landing, you need to choose well-lit area with enriched chernozem neutral soil. You can check the acidity of the soil by dropping table vinegar on it. If the reaction in the form of hissing and bubbles is absent, then the earth is acidic. Such soil should be alkalinized with lime fluff.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
Also selected the site should be protected from drafts, stagnation of frosty air masses and strong sunshine. Wetland, rocky places and those where groundwater comes closer to the surface than 2 m should be avoided.
Important! Do not pour the mulch closer than 15 cm from the tree trunk. This will protect the bark from pathogenic organisms that develop during the decomposition of organics.
Planting a seedling is carried out as follows:
- About 4 weeks before the event, a pit is prepared with a depth of 0.7 m and a diameter of 1 m. The top layer of the earth is stored for preparing the soil mixture.
- For drainage, a layer of expanded clay is laid at the bottom and a mixture is prepared from deposited earth, peat, compost and humus (in equal parts).
- The pit is covered with plastic wrap, the edges are fixed.
- Before planting, the seedling is inspected, dry roots are cut, and the rhizome of the tree is soaked for 24 hours in clean water.
- The film is removed, the apple tree is placed in the hole so that the root neck is 5 cm higher than the ground, the roots are straightened.
- Gradually, the pit is covered with a prepared soil mixture, while the tree is slightly shaken to fill the void between the roots.
- The soil is well compacted, the tree is abundantly watered with clean water, the earth is mulched.
In no case can you deepen the transition of the root into the trunk by more than 6 cm
Imrus apple trees are not too demanding and need standard comprehensive care - watering, top dressing and pruning.
Watering and feeding
When watering, the condition of the soil around the tree should be assessed and moisturize it as needed. Usually young trees are watered in the spring before buds and then every 2-3 weeks.Older trees need watering after the appearance of buds and during the formation of greenfinches.The amount of water depends on the age and size of the tree. So, 2–3 buckets are enough for an annual seedling, 4–5 buckets for a two-year-old seedling, and older trees may need up to 10 buckets of water. During harvesting and after that the trees are not watered so as not to cause excessive growth of greenery. If the weather is dry and warm for a long time, additional watering is possible.
With the right choice of planting location, with proper care and timely feeding of the plant, the tree will begin to bear fruit in the early stages
The first feeding is carried out in the springwhen the growing process begins. Then the seedlings need nitrogenous fertilizers to build green mass. Feeding is carried out with an aqueous solution of chicken droppings, mullein, or with a mixture of nitroammophoska and ammonium nitrate (1 tbsp each).
During the formation of the ovary, complex fertilizers are applied, consisting of superphosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (40 g), ammonium nitrate (10 g), compost (1 bucket), nitroammophos (30 g). After fruit ripening - in mid-August - humus or complex fertilizers are applied. The addition of superphosphate (50 g per 1 liter of water) will improve the frost resistance of the tree.
Tree pruning is carried out annually to remove old, damaged and diseased branches. This procedure improves the circulation of vegetable juice and stimulates fruiting. Also, during the pruning, the crown of the tree is formed, branches growing inside, which thicken the crown and create an unnecessary shadow, are removed. The branches should be cut so that 3-4 eyes remain.
Many experienced gardeners recommend trimming in two stages - in the spring to remove dry and infected parts, and in the fall - to thin out the crown and cut off weak shoots. Then the first pruning is carried out at the beginning of spring, and autumn - after the leaves fall.
As a result of the forming treatment, the crown should evenly transmit sunlight, and its lower tier should consist of a three-year growth. Only one-year-old shoots with a length of about 30 cm with tops in the form of inflorescences should be left. Do not forget to process all volumetric sections with garden var.
With proper pruning, the yield and quality of apples increases, and it also helps to prevent the appearance of various diseases
Whitewashing of trees is needed to protect them from diseases and pests. The whitewashing of apple trees in autumn is considered the most effective. However, if it was not carried out, you can whitewash tree trunks in early spring, immediately after the end of frost.
Did you know? Emma Karp Lundström, recreating a picture of the Flemish artist Floris France from apples, used about 35,000 fruits of different colors. The resulting work took almost 104 square meters. m!
The most common method is lime treatment.. The solution should be thick enough to cover the trunk with a dense layer. It is better to whiten young trees with chalk solution so that lime does not damage their fragile bark.
Video: How to whiten trees
You should prepare in advance for the event:
- clear of old and lagging bark;
- disinfect with a cooled soap solution (50 g of laundry soap, 3 kg of ash, 10 l of hot water);
- close all wounds and cracks with a clay-based talker (200 g of pure clay, 100 g of manure, a bit of straw and water).
Fruit trees must be protected at any age, whether it be young seedlings or a fully mature adult tree
A solution based on copper sulfate with the addition of creolin and Knockdown will protect against fungi, ants and rodents.
Although the variety has excellent winter hardiness, young seedlings need help to survive the cold season. To do this, their ground part is wrapped with a dense cloth, for example, burlap, and the ground is covered with humus.Also, to protect against rodents, the stocks are protected with a fine metal mesh or tied with coniferous spruce branches.
Diseases and Pests
High resistance of the variety to typical diseases and pests fruit trees is associated with the Vf gene grafted during selection, so the apple tree has gained full resistance to scab, as well as high immunity to powdery mildew. Thus, Imrus does not need preventive treatment with chemicals.
It is only necessary to observe the correct agricultural technology of growing crops:
- regularly water and monitor the tree and soil;
- carry out sanitary and thinning pruning;
- weed, loosen and mulch the earth;
- timely remove fallen leaves and fruits.
Video: Fruit Tree Care
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting is carried out starting from the second decade of September, however apples acquire their full ripeness approximately by November, since the fruits of the Imrus variety have a thin peel, they should be picked very carefully and transported, avoiding mechanical impact.
You need to store apples in a darkened cool room (cellar or basement), where they will preserve their quality almost until the beginning of spring. After full ripening, the fruits become more sweet and fragrant, and their color takes on a rich yellow hue. For long storage use disinfected wooden boxes, sprinkling apples with a soft material, such as straw.
Do not store in a plastic bag. In the absence of air, condensation forms in the bag, which leads to rotting of the fruit
Variety Imrus is perfectly adapted for planting in household plots of central Russia. Here it shows sufficient frost resistance, excellent resistance to infections and pests and excellent stable yield of delicious fruits.