Pinova apple variety: description and detailed description, growing rules
Pinova apple tree is a popular European variety for both industrial and home gardening. Detailed characteristics and basic rules for growing are described below.
Botanical description and characteristics of the apple tree
Pinova’s homeland is East Germany, where in 1986 this apple tree was officially registered after 18 years of selection work. The variety represents the result of the crossing of the Golden Delicious and Clivia apple trees, which, in turn, came from the union of Cox Orange Pippin and Dr. Oldenburg.
According to the authors, Pinova combines the excellent taste of Coke Orange, the high yield and color scheme of Dr. Oldenburg, as well as the shape of the fetus and the ability to store it for long Golden Delishes. The purpose of the selection is to obtain red apples that can complement Golden Delishes in the fruit market until June.
The fruits of the Pinov apple tree are large and the same
Features of the tree and description of the fruit
The variety has significant growth power at the beginning of the growing season and is characterized by such characteristics:
- average height;
- pyramidal crown;
- branch departure angle of about 90 °;
- fruits are tied on fruit rods, gloves and spears, and in the southern regions - on last year's growths;
- flowers are white, medium size.
A feature of Pinova is early maturity. Rootstocks M9, M26 and Pi80Select are recommended, and for poor soils - MM106.
Video: Pinova apple tree
The tree has good resistance to disease and frost resistance up to -25 ° C (in the climatic zones of Germany and Poland). In arid regions it will need additional moisture.
Pinov fruits have the following features:
- medium size, weight 130-160 g;
- conical shape, slightly ribbed;
- the skin is thin and shiny, durable;
- the main greenish-yellow color is a cover red color, with blurry stripes;
- the flesh of the fruit is creamy, medium density, very juicy;
- the taste is excellent, sweet.
Like Golden Delicious, Pinov fruits have excellent transportability and are suitable for long-term storage.
Did you know? The largest officially recorded girth of the trunk among apple trees is the Irish tree: it is 3.38 m. And the highest apple tree reaches 12 m and grows in Germany.
Pinova's self-infertility necessitates the planting of another pollinator next to it. The flowering of the tree is quite stretched, so the variety itself will be a good pollinator for many apple trees. Such inter-pollinated varieties will be Golden Delishes, Fuji, Cox Orange, Melrose, Champion, Elstar. In some sources, among the pollinators, Gala and Jonagold are called, however, German breeders point to the incompatibility of these varieties with Pinova.
The average flowering period is late April, and apple ripening occurs in early October (in Germany) or late September (in France).
Flowering Pinov apple tree
Every year, the apple tree brings a high yield. The productivity of the variety is comparable to Golden Delicious, and sometimes exceeds its performance by 25-60%. According to some reports, a five-year-old tree brings in over 30 kg of fruit, and in subsequent years this figure grows.
To ensure better fruiting, rationing of the ovaries and pruning are necessary, otherwise the fruits become smaller.
Apple tree brings many fruits
Advantages and disadvantages
- Pinova has gained popularity in many countries due to the following advantages:
- excellent taste and long-term storage of fruits;
- early maturity;
- high annual yield;
- resistance to diseases and frosts.
- The relative disadvantages of the variety are the following features:
- the need for additional pollinators;
- the need for thinning ovaries.
Features of planting and care for the apple tree
You can get the full return on the selected variety only if all the rules of planting are observed and the tree is properly maintained.
Agricultural Engineering Planting
Apple trees can be planted in autumn or spring, making a decision depending on climatic conditions and an assortment of seedlings. A tree with good winter hardiness is best planted in the fall, providing it with sufficient time for rooting.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
To buy a seedling, it is best to visit a fruit crop nursery or garden center. In such places, the probability of a tree matching the declared variety is much higher than in markets.
Learn about cultivating other winter apple varieties:
An apple tree can be grafted onto a seed or vegetative stock. Their main differences are as follows:
- Seed stock provide the tree with a long life and high growth, unpretentiousness in care and higher frost resistance. However, this type of root system will not grow where groundwater comes close to the soil level. Late fruiting is characteristic.
- Vegetative stocks skoroplodny, have a more compact size (srednerosly, semi-dwarfs and dwarfs) and roots not so deep down. Such an apple tree will be less frost-resistant and will live only 15–20 years.
Pinova has proven itself on the vegetative stock M9, which is considered one of the most successful options for apple trees. Its characteristics are as follows:
- dwarf type (21-40% of seedlings);
- early maturity and productivity;
- resistance to root cancer;
- insufficient anchor, garter required;
- good winter hardiness on drained soil;
- sensitivity to lack of moisture.
The selection of a specific specimen should be based on a visual inspection of the aerial parts of the seedling and its root system. You must verify the following:
- healthy elastic wood of trunk and roots;
- fibrous developed root system without traces of rot;
- lack of damage on the trunk and branches;
- the place of grafting of the variety on the stock should be tightened with bark;
- the autumn sapling should already go through the leaf fall stage, in which case it will put all its strength into rooting.
The right place to land
The choice of place begins with a check of the groundwater level and soil composition. For stocks with high growth, the water-lifting limit should not exceed 3 m, and for dwarf stock M9 this value can be 1.5 m.
The landing site should be in a sunny area, away from cold winds. Mandatory drainage of excess water after melting snow or heavy rainfall to prevent root neck warping.
If the analysis showed the acid composition of the soil, liming should be performed and dolomite flour, lime or chalk should be added to the soil. In general, the apple tree will grow better on fertile and loose soils.
Determination of soil acidity using a litmus test
It is better to prepare the pit for the tree in advance, then the earth will have time to settle, and the fertilizers introduced into it will already take on an easily digestible form. The volume of the pit should slightly exceed the volume of the root system of the seedling. The approximate depth of such a pit is 70 cm.
After removing the top layer of the earth, the following top dressings are added to it:
- 1-2 cups of superphosphate;
- 2-3 buckets of humus;
- 4–5 Art. l potassium sulfate and 8-10 tbsp. wood ash.
Important! Fresh manure should not be added to the pit during autumn planting, since it inhibits rooting.
Landing pattern and process
Possessing a compact crown, especially on the M9 stock, Pinova is suitable for planting according to the 5–6 pattern on 3 m; for taller stocks, the distance between the trees should be increased. To improve the survival rate, dry roots are cut on the seedling and put it in water the night before planting .
A young tree, especially on a dwarf rootstock, needs reliable support, for this they use a wooden peg:
- for stunted apple trees, it is necessary to take a stake from oak, since it will be near the tree all its life (diameter should be at least 5 cm and length 1.8–2 m);
- Seed stocks need support only in the first years of life, therefore it is better to take a peg out of linden or walnut so that its underground part will quickly decay (a diameter of 2.5 cm and a length of 1–1.5 m will be sufficient).
Planting fruit trees is best done together, and the sequence of actions will be as follows:
- Having outlined the center of the recess, the stake is clogged to a height of about 80 cm.
- Around the center, a fertile earth mixture is poured with a cone.
- The seedling is set on the north side of the peg, and the roots are neatly distributed over the earthen cone.
- Holding the seedling by the trunk and shaking it lightly, they fill the pit with earth. The poured soil is compacted and checked so that the root neck (not the place of grafting!) Rises above the soil by 5–10 cm. If the pit was excavated recently and the soil did not have time to settle, leave 10–15 cm.
- The seedlings are watered with 3 buckets of water and, if necessary, they add earth to the desired level.
- A seedling is tied to a peg, and the trunk circle is mulched with peat or humus to a height of 5 cm.
The first months after planting, it is necessary to provide weekly hydration of the apple tree.
Watering and feeding
Young apple trees are watered every month, and in the drier months, more frequent watering may be necessary. 3-4 buckets of water should be allocated to one tree.
Important! Do not pour water exactly under the root. The suction roots of the apple tree are located along the diameter of the crown of the tree, and the flow of water should be directed there.
Reaching adulthood the tree should receive water at the rate of 1 bucket for 1 year of the tree's life at least 4 times:
- before the kidneys open;
- 20 days after flowering;
- 30 days before harvesting;
- after harvesting.
Fertilizing for young apple trees is performed according to this schedule:
- urea solution (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) is poured under the root in March;
- by the end of spring, foliar top dressing with sodium humate or "Ideal" is carried out, according to the instructions;
- in September, shed with a solution of superphosphate (2 tablespoons per 1 bucket of water).
For trees that have already begun to bear fruit, the following fertilizer application scheme is recommended:
- in late April, 500 g of urea is scattered under an apple tree;
- before the flowering phase, an infusion is prepared (50 g of urea, 80 g of potassium sulfate and 100 g of superphosphate in 20 liters of water, insist for a week) and poured into moist soil;
- when flowering is over, add 20 l of water with 100 g of nitrophoska and 2 g of dry sodium humate;
- after harvesting, a mixture is prepared from potassium sulfate and superphosphate (300 g each) and a humus bucket (fertilizers are applied to the depth of the spade bayonet along the crown diameter).
Cropping and rejuvenation methods
Forming pruning is usually performed the year after planting.so that the seedling can take root well. In the year of planting, you can shorten the annual unbranched seedling, retreating 40-45 cm from the bend of the conductor. If this distance is shorter, pruning is not performed.
In the 2nd and 3rd year, 3-4 skeletal branches are prescribed. Branches with a horizontal base are best suited, while vertical ones will inhibit the growth of the conductor.
Important! The distance between the skeletal branches, if they are located on one side, must be at least 30–40 cm
Between the skeletal branches and as the tree grows, they are located on them semi-skeletal branches, which should be 2 times shorter than skeletal. At first, annual shoots are shortened more to increase the number of lateral branches.
Vertical shoots in the early years do not completely remove. They play the role of protecting the trunk and skeletal branches from sunburn, for which they are shortened to 10-15 cm. After a year, such a branch is cut at the level of lower lateral growth.Perform work with clean and sharp tools (pruner, hacksaw, etc.)
An adult tree needs spring thinning of the crown. Cut frost-damaged or broken branches, as well as those located high off the ground. Anti-aging pruning involves shortening the ends of the branches (half-skeletal and skeletal). It is performed every 4–5 years.
Whitewashing of fruit trees is designed to protect the trunk and base of skeletal branches in the winter. Such processing solves the following problems:
- reflection of the bright winter sun from the bark, especially during the thaw;
- protecting the barrel from sudden changes in temperature, which can cause frost holes;
- destruction of larvae and spores of pathogenic organisms wintering in the cortex;
- protection against eating bark by rodents.
It is recommended to perform whitewashing after the end of leaf fall at a temperature of + 1 ... + 3 ° C, and in February, some compositions are desirable to update. At the same time, young seedlings are treated only with special mixtures that do not block air access, or are protected by mechanical wrapping of the trunk.
To whitewash apple trees in the garden, you can use the following drugs:
- acrylic whitewash, presented on store shelves, perfectly retains on the bark and does not need a February update, but is suitable only for adult specimens, contains bactericidal and antifungal supplements;
- water emulsion solution You can also buy in a store, but to protect yourself from diseases, it is recommended to add copper sulfate on your own;
- traditional a mixture of clay and manure (1 part), lime (2 parts) and copper sulfate (a quarter part);
- a mixture of one part lime, two parts clay and a quarter part copper sulfate Suitable for young trees;
- another recipe for self production includes 300 g of copper sulfate and 2 kg of lime (freshly slaked) per 10 liters of water, which are thoroughly mixed and added 1 tbsp. carbolic acid (for protection against rodents).
Did you know? Cider is a low-alcoholic drink made from fermented fruit juice, which is obtained from apples of special varieties, since universal fruits do not contain enough tannins.
In addition to autumn fertilizing and water-loading irrigation, it is necessary to carry out the following preparatory measures before wintering:
- clean the bark, remove fallen leaves and carrion;
- wrap the trunks of young seedlings with roofing material, lapnik, roofing paper or other materials that will fit snugly to the bark;
- additionally mulch near-stem circles of young apple trees with a layer of peat or humus in the event of snowless frosts.
Diseases and Pests
There are several effective methods for the prevention of diseases and pests. These include:
- digging of tree trunks in the fall, due to which many pests will be destroyed;
- cleaning of bark and whitewashing, as well as sanitary trimming of the crown;
- regular collection and destruction of carrion;
- collection and destruction of fallen leaves and diseased scraps.
Pinova demonstrates good resistance to diseases, but you should pay attention to the possibility of such problems:
- Fruit rot - forms brown spots on the skin of the fruit, which then cover most of the apple and soften the flesh. The main remedy is copper preparations.
- Scab - causes the appearance of oily spots on the foliage and brown plaque on the fruits. Spring protection includes treatment with copper, and in the fall with iron sulfate, also use the drug "Skor".
- Apple moth - a butterfly that can damage a significant part of the crop, and its larvae gnaw through apples in the path to the core. In addition to the listed preventive measures, traps and insecticide treatment are used.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting is recommended on a dry day.. Since Pinova is suitable for long-term storage, apples should be sorted by size, discarding damaged specimens.Then the fruits are placed in boxes or containers, laying each layer with sawdust or paper.
Storage temperature should be maintained at + 1 ° C. The average fruit laying time is 240 days.The apples are stored for up to 9 months
Apple-tree Pinova is a promising variety that has become widespread in Europe and the United States. It is great for growing tasty fruits for long-term storage.
Network user reviews
Pinova - the fruits of an unusual bright yellow-orange color. I have been vaccinated in Jonathan and the vaccination has been blooming and bearing fruit for the third year. But Pinov fails to try his hand because, for some reason, the apple falls and is lost. I tasted the fruits hanging on a tree on plantations of the Crimean experimental station. In my opinion, the taste is harsh.