Features of the cultivation and care of plum varieties Giant Burbank
Plums belong to those fruit crops that breeders most often engage in to get interesting new varieties. This is due to the great popularity of culture in almost all countries and the versatility of the fruit. Despite its Japanese origin, the Giant Burbank variety has perfectly adapted to our climate. About what it is - read in this article.
General characteristics of the variety
This variety has a rather unusual history. Well-known breeder Luther Burbank (Santa Rose, California, USA) ordered several plum trees from Japan for breeding. Unfortunately, they did not take root and began to bear fruit only after vaccination. As a result of further breeding work using the parental varieties d'Agen and Ponds Seedling in 1889, the Giant Burbank plum was obtained. According to its characteristics, it turned out to be close to Japanese plums, and cherry plum acted as a stock. The variety refers to a hybrid of cherry plum and plum.
In 1897, he entered the State Register, and the giant Burbank began to be used for crossbreeding with other varieties. So, in the southern latitudes of our country, cherry plum Dessert is quite popular - the result of crossing plum Burbank and cherry plum of Tavria.
Growing Regions and Ripening Period
The giant Burbank is intended for cultivation in the south and in the middle zone of Russia, as well as throughout Ukraine. The average ripening time of a plum of this variety is 120 days.
Harvesting is carried out from July 20 to August 10.
Biological description of a tree
The variety refers to diploid, i.e., having a double set of chromosomes. This is associated with its improved properties and good adaptability to almost any conditions.
Plum tree Giant Burbank grows up to 5 m. Its crown is of medium thickening, pyramidal shape. The branches are long (up to 40 cm), the surface is covered with a brownish coating. The ovary develops on one-year-old shoots. Medium inflorescences unite no more than 5 light flowers. The plant is self-fertile due to the same length of stamens and pistils. However, with cross-pollination, its productivity is always higher, so it is worth having other plums or cherry plum on the site, blooming at the same time.
Plum leaves - up to 5 cm long, dark green, glossy, with pointed tips, with a wax coating. With an excess of sunlight, they slightly curl up, forming "boats". The variety is grown in various climatic zones at temperatures in the range of -40 ... + 40 ° С. It is resistant to most typical crop diseases and does not change its qualities under the influence of temperatures.
Did you know? Breeders managed to get a plant similar to a home plum by crossing cherry plum with a blackthorn. It seems that the wild progenitor of modern culture appeared in this way.
Characterization of fruits and their purpose
Fruits The giant Burbank is what distinguishes this variety from many other plums. They can reach a weight of 250 g (on average - 200 g) with a diameter of 4-5 cm, which is why they got their name.
Video: Plum diploid variety Burbank Giant
The fruit has a round shape, burgundy or purple, however, lighter specimens can also be found. A barely noticeable bluish coating is noted on the surface of the drain. The peel of the fruit is very dense, the flesh is also dense, maroon, fragrant, sweet with sourness. The stone is small, firmly seated in the pulp. The variety is considered dessert and is used fresh and for the preparation of winter preparations (jam, jam, compote), as well as prunes. It is perfect for culinary products - pies, desserts and various pastries.
Important! With good care, the fruits of the variety practically do not crumble from the tree and hold firmly on the stalks until harvesting.
The variety is high-yielding: on average, one adult plum gives up to 30 kg of fruit. Moreover, the amount of harvest is almost independent of the climate of the area. The seedling brings the first fruits in the 3-4th year after planting.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The giant Burbank has undoubted advantages over other varieties of plums:
- high productivity;
- early bearing
- excellent fruit quality;
- large fruit size;
- wide temperature range for growing;
- good resistance to most typical crop diseases.
No particular flaws were noted.
The sapling of the variety will take root perfectly if you choose the right place and time for planting, as well as correctly conduct the procedure of planting a tree.
Plum is planted in the spring, when the air warms up enough and frosts are no longer expected. For the middle zone of the country - this is about the end of March. Spring planting will allow the tree to adapt to new conditions, take root well and easily survive the upcoming winter.
Location and layout
For planting a seedling, you should choose an open, well-lit place, preferably on a small hill. It is better to plant a plum in the southeastern part of the garden, where it can get the maximum amount of ultraviolet light, and its fruits ripen faster.
The soil on the site should be light, well-drained, fertile, so that the roots of the plant receive a sufficient amount of nutrients, water and oxygen. If the garden is too acidic, it should be alkalized with lime (3 kg per 1 m²).Giant Burbank plum landing scheme - 3 × 4 m.
A landing site has been prepared since the fall, digging up the site and removing excess garbage - stones, glass, weed roots. Then make organic top dressing - humus, peat or compost (15 kg per 1 m²).The main works begin around February:
- A quality annual grafted seedling is purchased.
- A hole is being prepared for planting with a diameter of 70 cm and a depth of 60 cm. The third part of the pit is filled with humus.
- At the end of March, a seedling is placed in the hole, the roots are evenly distributed.
- A wooden pedestal is installed to tie the tree.
- The pit is filled with soil mixture so that the root neck remains above the surface.
- The soil is well compacted, the seedling is watered with 15 liters of standing water at room temperature.
The variety belongs to unpretentious crops and does not require complex care.
Plum should be watered as the topsoil dries. In the hot period - an average of 1 time per month using 30 liters of warm water per adult tree. After irrigation, when the water goes into the ground, it is necessary to well loosen the soil, allowing air to reach the roots.
Important! In order not to damage the roots of the plum, it is not recommended to loosen the soil in the root circle deeper than 10 cm.
Tree pruning is carried out as needed. Typically, in early spring, the crown is thinned and all branches that are knocked out of it or growing inside the crown are cut. In late autumn, after harvesting and falling leaves, all damaged and diseased shoots are cut, sections are necessarily treated with garden var.Sections must be treated with garden var
Top dressing is a must for plum care. She needs mineral and organic fertilizers. Fertilization for one tree is carried out according to the following scheme:
- in early spring during active growing season - to improve the quality of the ovary, 20 l of potassium nitrate solution (40 g per 10 l of water);
- in the summer during the formation of fruits - to improve the quality of fruits, 10 l of a solution of ammonium nitrate (30 g per 5 l of water);
- late autumn - to protect the rhizome from freezing, 15 l of superphosphate solution (50 g per 5 l of water).
The giant Burbank tolerates cold well, therefore it does not need special shelter, especially in regions where abundant snow cover will protect the tree well from frost. However, sudden changes in temperature can worsen the quality of the future crop and affect young trees. That is why seedlings need to be additionally covered with dense material, for example, burlap. Before the start of winter, it will not hurt to cover the ground around the tree with peat, manure and whitewash the trunk of the plum with lime mortar.
Diseases and Pests
This variety has good resistance to diseases and pests. So, it is resistant to monoliasis, however, it can sometimes be affected by powdery mildew, olive spotting, ticks and fleas.
Powdery mildew can be dealt with using a solution of colloidal salt (30 g per 10 liters of water). And from olive spotting it is necessary to use Bordeaux liquid (50 g per 10 liters of water). To combat ticks and fleas, the copper-containing preparation Oksikhom (30 g per 7 liters of water) is used.
Prevention of infection is good tree care: timely watering, top dressing and pruning. As a means of prevention, you can also spray the plantings (before bearing!) With a solution of copper sulfate (50 g per 10 liters of water). The interval between treatments is 2 weeks.
Did you know? Plum is a wonderful honey plant: from 1 ha of plum orchards, bees can collect up to 10 kg of sweet treats.
Harvesting and storage
The ripened fruits are picked by hand, along with the stalks. Plums of this variety are quite dense and are characterized by good transportability. But regarding the long-term storage, the opinions of gardeners differ. Some manage to keep the plums in a dark and cool place, laying them in a row in wooden boxes on paper or sawdust.Most gardeners are inclined to believe that it is better to use fresh plums within a few weeks after harvesting, and the remaining ones to process into dried fruits or winter harvests.
The giant Burbank is one of the best plum varieties that have spread throughout our country. A condition for a long and fruitful life of a tree is compliance with all the rules for planting and caring for it. And then the plum will certainly thank you with an excellent harvest of delicious giant fruits.