Gloucester apple tree: planting and care features
Winter grades of apple trees with high stubbornness can supply consumers with their fruits even in spring, so interest in them does not fade. The Gloucester apple variety is popular in many European countries for its ability to be stored until the end of May. In this article, you will learn about the Gloucester apple tree, its characteristics, planting and care features, as well as harvesting and storage.
Grade Gloucester is of German origin. He was taken out in 1951, and soon he gained great popularity in European countries. In particular, he showed himself perfectly in Ukraine and in the southern regions of Russia. The Gloucester tree shows strong growth and forms a pyramidal or oval medium-dense crown. Height reaches 8 m. It begins to bear fruit from 4 years after planting, and on dwarf rootstocks - from 2-3 years. Flowering is medium late, long.
Did you know? Apples do not drown in water, due to the fact that a quarter are made up of air.
The variety is able to self-pollinate, but overall pollination is mixed and the presence of pollinators increases the yield well. The best pollinators are apple trees Idared, Jonathan, Gala, James Greve, Spartan. The average fruit mass is 160 g, but they can reach 200 g. They have a round-conical shape with a slight ribbing in the upper part. The cover color of dark raspberry red almost completely covers the main yellowish color of the apple. Under the smooth shiny skin, bright subcutaneous specks are visible.Gloucester apples are highly appreciated by gardeners throughout Europe. The fruits are juicy, have a light green flesh, which, when stored, takes on a creamy tone. She has a sweet taste with a slight acidity, estimated at 4.5 points. The taste of fruits is best expressed in the southern regions. Ripening occurs in late September. The taste becomes most pronounced by January, and the apples themselves can retain their qualities in May. From an adult apple tree, 35–75 kg of the crop is harvested. Gloucester is resistant to powdery mildew and poorly resistant to scab. It can tolerate frosts down to -25 ° C.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Gardeners value this variety for the following benefits:
- excellent keeping quality of fruits;
- crop stability;
- apples perfectly tolerate transportation;
- beautiful presentation of fruits;
- excellent taste;
- good disease resistance.
- Commonly recognized disadvantages:
- lack of heat affects the taste of the fruit;
- in the rainy period, the scab is defeated.
Landing and preparation for it
In general, apple seedlings of Gloucester cultivar do not require any special conditions compared to other fruit trees. However, for a successful landing, careful implementation of the established rules is necessary.
Important! Tall apple trees should be planted 3 meters from the fence or wall of the house. Srednerosly and on a dwarf stock - on 2 m.
In the southern regions, apple seedlings can be planted in spring and autumn. In the spring they plant before budding; at this time, it is good to plant young specimens (up to 2 years). A seedling planted in spring winters more easily. In autumn, it is best to plant apple trees after the leaves have fallen, but no later than a month before the frost. They should be well rooted before the onset of winter temperatures.
Choosing the best seedling when buying
Buy apple seedlings in proven places with a good reputation - in nurseries or in stores for gardeners. It is best to choose a seedling of 1-2 years of age. There will be no branches on a 1-year-old tree, and a 2-year-old tree will have 2-3 branches. You should pay attention to the stock used - dwarf, semi-dwarf, medium-tall or tall.The distance between the trees and the number of plants per hundred square meters of the garden will depend on this. On the plant and its roots should not be growths and damage. The roots should be well developed, moist and bent, at the cut they should look bright. It is not recommended to buy a seedling with blossoming buds.
Choosing a place to land
The area for the apple tree should be in a well-lit and sunny place. Water should not accumulate there, and groundwater should be no closer than 2.5 m. It is better to choose hills or slopes and avoid lowlands. The landing site should not be heavily blown by northerly winds. Nearby should be pollinating trees.
Important! When liming the soil for an apple tree, one should not get too carried away - this tree tolerates slightly higher acidity than alkaline earth. In slightly acidic soil, it is enough to add a little ash and potassium sulfate, rotted manure.
The distance between the trees depends on the stock:
- on a seed stock - not less than 4-5 m;
- on medium-thick or semi-dwarf rootstock - 3 m;
- on dwarf - 2-3 m.
Apple trees love loose nutritious soils that can retain moisture. The acidity of the soil should be in the range of 5.1–7.5 pH. Too acidic soil is lime.The place for planting an apple tree Gloucester should be well warmed up by the sun
The hole should be dug no later than 2-3 weeks before planting. Its diameter for a vigorous seedling will be 1 m, depth - 0.7 m. For dwarf trees, they dig a slightly smaller hole. The fertile soil layer is laid to the side and then mixed with humus and mineral potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. If the soil at the landing site is not loose enough, then sand is added to it.
The landing itself is as follows:
- If the seedling has somewhat dried roots, it is soaked in water with a root stimulant (for example, “Kornevin”).
- Try on the seedling to the pit and, if necessary, add soil mixture to the bottom.
- Then they put a tree in the pit, straighten its roots and fill it with soil, gently tamping so that there are no voids. At the same time, a support for the seedling is buried next to it.
- Form a hole and well watered.
- The seedling is fixed to the support.
Video: instructions for planting an apple tree
The depth of the seedling is affected by the site of vaccination. Apple trees on seed stocks, oculized at the root neck, are planted so that the root neck is slightly above ground level. A seedling on a dwarf rootstock, where the budding is low, is planted so that the vaccination site is at ground level. Trees on tall rootstocks can be covered with 10–15 cm above the root neck, as the grafting site will be higher.
To get a good harvest, proper care should be taken for the apple trees.
Freshly planted spring seedlings are first watered every 2 weeks. Adult trees are enough to water 4 times per season:
- during budding;
- 20 days after the apple trees have bloomed;
- 14 days before harvesting;
- in October to prepare for the winter.
The first feeding is carried out a year after planting a seedling. To do this, in the spring, when the first leaves appear under 1 tree, 40 g of nitroammophos and ammonium nitrate are introduced, and 5 buckets of humus are scattered on the ground before digging. During the appearance of color, a second top dressing is performed. You can use the following composition - 300 g of urea, 100 g of superphosphate, 70 g of potassium sulfate are diluted in 10 liters of water, then 5 liters of slurry and 2 buckets of bird droppings are added to it. For 1 tree, 4 buckets of such a mixture go. In the summer, foliar dressing should be carried out during the formation of the fruit.Fresh manure should not be used as fertilizer (so as not to burn the roots, especially in young seedlings) and any fertilizer with a chlorine content (for example, potassium chloride). Apple trees do not like this microelement. To prepare a solution for spraying, 1 g of sodium humate and 50 g of nitrophoska are dissolved in 10 l. For foliar feeding, you can use urea (30 g per 10 l). Fertilizers containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are applied to the soil once every 14 days from the second half of June to the first of August. To prepare the trees for the winter period, complex feeding is used, as well as organic matter - humus and compost. This will strengthen the trees and allow you to safely survive the winter.
Video: feeding apple trees
In the first years after planting a seedling, a forming crown pruning is carried out annually in spring. On the apple tree leave branches that do not interfere with each other and grow at an angle of 45-60 ° to the trunk. The crown is usually made sparse-tier, for this:
- In the first year, the top is cut off to shorten the stem.
- In the second year, 3-5 branches are left, located at approximately the same distance from each other - this will be 1 tier.
- In the third year, 2 tiers of 3-4 branches are formed.
- In the fourth year they make 3 tiers, leaving 3 branches.
Important! When trimming branches, there should be no stumps, and the places of cuts should be treated with garden var.
Despite the fact that this variety has a fairly high winter hardiness, young trees that are less than 5 years old should be protected from winter frosts. The trunk and lower branches are recommended to be wrapped with dense material (roofing material, burlap, spunbond) to protect against rodents. If the forest and fields are not far, it makes sense to use a special net and dig it into the ground so that rodents do not dig holes. The soil around the apple tree should be mulched, to protect the roots from freezing. For this purpose, straw, peat, humus, sawdust are suitable.Young seedlings can be protected with the help of spruce branches (pine branches), and also make a small mound of soil around the trunk. During snowfall, snow is thrown around the trees - this will additionally insulate the tree. And if you also trample such a snow embankment, then it will be difficult for small rodents to make passages to the tree bark. Before the warming measures, the apple trees are sanitized for trimming the crown, trimming and whitewashing the trunk, cleaning the near-stem circle, and they also carry out preventive spraying.
Did you know? Most imported apples imported to the Russian Federation, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands.
Diseases and pests of the variety
Gloucester apple trees are susceptible to such a fungal disease as scab. Symptoms of the disease are turning brown leaves and their further drying. Brown spots also appear on the fruits, they become small. To combat scab, treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid and Fitosporin are used.You can spray with folk methods:
- Saline solution - at the rate of 1 kg per 1 bucket (10 l).
- Use soda - 1.5 kg per 10 liters.
- Infusion of horsetail roots at the rate of 2.5 kg per 10 liters. The roots are finely chopped and poured with water for 4 days.
- A solution of ash at the rate of 1 kg to 1 liter of water. This mixture is insisted 1-2 days.
Apple trees can also be susceptible to invasion by pests - aphids, ticks, leaf flies, pennies, cicadas, insects, codling moths, multicolor, weevils. To cope with these insects, insecticidal preparations such as “Karbofos”, “Nitrafen”, “Kleschevita” are used. Folk remedies also help well - spraying with a soap-tobacco solution, infusion of garlic and onions. Marigolds, wormwood, and calendula planted near apple trees scared off pests with their smell.
To prevent the appearance of diseases and pests, the following measures should be taken:
- digging around the trees, especially in the fall;
- carry out loosening of the soil with pulling out weeds;
- in the fall to remove the remains of vegetation and fallen leaves;
- to clean off the old exfoliating bark, since it is an excellent shelter for insects and a source of various infections;
- remove diseased branches;
- collect and dispose of scavenger;
- in early spring and autumn, carry out preventive spraying with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate;
- conduct regular inspection of the garden to identify pests and diseases in order to timely take appropriate control measures.
Harvesting and storage
This variety is characterized by prolonged strong growth, which moves the appearance of the fruit at a later time. You can start harvesting fruits from late September to early October. Consumer-ripe apples become after the New Year holidays. Fruits need to lie down for a certain time, so that their taste improves and unfolds.
Did you know? Slavs exchanged apples between the couple was a symbol of reciprocity. The girl during the matchmaking took the apple tree fruit from the guy, which meant consent to marriage.
Gloucester apples with proper storage do not lose their quality until February. On the shelf of the refrigerator, they can lie until May. Apples are great for eating in winter and spring. They are also suitable for processing: from them you can make juice, jam, jam, make drying.So, the main advantages of Gloucester apples are that they have a presentation and are perfectly stored all winter. This variety is recommended for the southern regions, and in the middle lane needs warming for the winter. To obtain high yields, standard agricultural practices for apple trees are needed - timely watering and top dressing, pruning and shaping, protective and preventive work.