Botanical description and features of growing pears of the variety Severyanka Krasnoshchechaya
Varieties of fruit trees are constantly being improved and crossed in search of new solutions to improve the quality of yield and plant resistance. One such recently created species is the pear Severyanka Krasnoshcheka.
Breeding History and Variety Breeding Region
The culture was bred at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after I.V. Michurina (VNIISPK) breeder S.P. Yakovlev. Two promising species were crossed - Severyanka and Krasnoshcheka.
Did you know? The Peloponnese Peninsula in ancient Greece was called the "country of pears." Trees 20–25 m high brought many fruits.
The plant is a decoration of a garden or summer house - a tree with beautiful pears looks great on the site. And the fruits of this summer variety have wonderful taste.
The adult plant has a height of 5-6 meters. The pyramidal crown is wide, which in garden conditions forces seedlings to be planted at some distance from each other. The stem and main branches are brown and smooth. The shoots are brown, slightly articulated and without fringe.
The foliage is plentiful, medium sized, green, elongated. White flowers have an average size, in inflorescence there are 4-6 of them. With sufficiently early flowering, inflorescences are frost-resistant.
Description of pears
Oval, slightly conical, medium-sized fruits weigh 90–100 grams. In seasons with a plentiful harvest, the mass of pears can be reduced to 60–80 grams. The coloration during technical maturity is green-yellow with brownish spots, during storage the yellow color becomes more pronounced, and the cover on the sunny side of the brown becomes red.
The flesh of Severyanka is cream-colored, juicy, slightly crispy with butteriness. Sweet and sour taste is mixed with aroma, which gives some depth to the taste of the fruit. In addition, it lacks astringency and stonyness.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
The variety is summer, so it begins to bloom early. In late April or early May, the tree is covered with beautiful flowers, whose petals look like saucers. The first fruits can be tasted already in early August, and mass fruiting occurs by the middle of this month. A short shelf life involves storing the fruit before use in food or processing for about two weeks.
Important! Given the high flaking quality of the variety, it is necessary to collect pears a few days before technical maturity.
Low self-pollination ability (only 30% of flowers) suggests the presence of other pear trees in a small distance. They will help to pollinate the Severnyanka Krasnoshchekoy in time, which will allow you to get a good harvest. A pear in memory of Yakovlev is suitable for this.
The pear is vaccinated with the Vf gene from pathogens of a disease such as scab. This helps in confronting and many other diseases and pests that carry them.
The frost resistance of the variety allows you to grow this culture in regions with fairly severe winters. The fact that the tree is capable of producing large yields and at the same time withstand temperature indicates excellent adaptation to severe climatic conditions.
Pros and possible disadvantages of the variety
- The positive characteristics of the species include:
- fast growth and compactness of a tree;
- early maturity;
- resistance to scab and some other diseases;
- frost resistance.
- Of the minuses, the following can be noted:
- the need for pollinators;
- crumbling fruit;
- a large number of fruits, which leads to their small size;
- the need for regular care of the crown.
Agriculture tree planting on the site
For planting, you need to determine in advance where the tree will be. This may be a section of the garden near its border, where there are no drafts and excess sunlight.
Planting a plant is necessary in early spring or mid-autumn. In the first case, the culture is still “sleeping” and will begin to take root, depending on the planting period. In the second case, the pear has time to take root before a harsh winter. Each gardener chooses the dates independently, taking into account the climatic features of the region.
How to choose seedlings?
Grade seedlings are chosen with healthy roots and branches. Too long and short specimens are rejected. The direct roots, the correct branching structure and the proportionality of the seedling are its main parameters.
Important! You can break one small twig to make sure that the plant is not frozen. The normal branch will have a lively appearance and will not break off in the hand.
How to choose and prepare a place?
The seedling is planted in a pre-prepared hole, located away from other trees. If it is a pear garden, you need to consider the height and size of the plants. In the case of the cottage, the fact that the culture needs to grow separately, at a small distance from pollinators and without drafts is taken into account.
The pit is prepared 1-2 weeks before disembarkation using the following technology:
- dig a "funnel" up to a meter deep, up to 80 cm wide;
- stack two buckets of organic fertilizer;
- watered with 2-3 buckets of water.
The planted plant in a prepared place, sprinkled with earth, carefully tamped and watered so that the earth around the roots is compacted.
Did you know? Strong pear wood has long been used for fortifications and dams. Nowadays, researchers find elements of ancient dams from this tree.
Further tree care
When the seedling takes root, caring for it is not much different from caring for any tree in the rosaceae family.
Loosening and weed control
The need for weed control is a debated process. On the one hand, a clean garden gives a quality crop, on the other hand, the grass in the near-stem part can serve as a mulch.
Loosening the soil near the trunk of a fruit tree is necessary to destroy the crust after watering. This should be done carefully so as not to touch the trunk and trunk roots.
Feeding and watering
Watering a pear, especially one as large as the Severyanka Krasnoshchekaya, must be plentiful and not only at the root. Normal watering consists of 5-6 buckets of barely warm water, spilled around the perimeter of the crown projection 2-3 times a week.
They begin to feed the pear for 2-3 years, depending on how much fertilizer was invested in the planting pit. During awakening, organic fertilizers can be applied, during flowering - phosphates, and when pouring fruits - potash.
Pear crown formation is an important process. A tree can grow "in itself", thickening the crown. To prevent this from happening, you need to conduct annual picking branches. Those that are too long are cut in half, the rest can be shortened by a third.
Important! Sanitary pruning of an adult tree is carried out annually. Old, curved and diseased branches are removed, and damaged ones are cut off after the fracture site.
Preparing a tree for winter
Despite the frost resistance of the variety, the tree must be prepared for wintering. Young seedlings must be mulched with 10-15 cm soil and overlaid with standard paper. The trunks of adult pears are tied with pine conifer or film.
Before hibernation, you can water the plant with 2-3 buckets of water. You need to do this on a warm day, gently pouring water under the crown projection.
Pest and Disease Control
The introduced Vf gene protects the plant from scab and related diseases, but other ailments can still affect the culture:
- "Witch's broom", or microplasma disease. Virtually untreated. The plant where the disease is detected, it is better to uproot and burn outside the site or garden.
- Fruit rot. It appears on pears in the form of brown spots. The disease is treated with Bordeaux liquid or perchloric copper.
- Bacterial burn. Appears after freezing of foliage. Antibiotics are used for treatment.
Of the pests, a butterfly hawthorn can infect a plant. So that this parasite does not attack the tree, you need to remove all its connections with it - fallen fruits, affected branches, leaves. All this is burned off site. For prevention, you can treat the tree with an insecticide, for example, “Karbofos”.
Northerner Krasnoshchekaya is not an ideal pear variety, as these plants are forced to survive in harsh conditions. But for the Midland, this pear is perfectly adapted and brings considerable yields.