Features of cultivation and care rules for the variety of apple trees
Landing apple tree is the most common fruit tree in gardeners' gardens. The plant fell in love for its unpretentiousness in cultivation and excellent frost resistance. The characteristic features of the variety, planting and growing technology will be discussed below.
Description and characteristic
The tree is stunted, reaches a height of 2.5 m. The top of a dwarf apple tree, has a round shape, medium density. Annual shoots of medium size, green-brown in color, their direction from the central shoot is at right angles. Leaf plates - dark green in color, rounded in shape, with a sharp point at the end. On the underside of the leaf, there is a slight pubescence.
Check out such autumn varieties of apple trees as:
Fruits have a spherical shape, small. The mass reaches up to 110 g. The peel is dense, glossy, its color is yellow-green, with a pink blush. The soft part has a greenish tint, its structure is dense, grainy. The taste of apples is sweet, there may be a slight touch of sour.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of the Prizemleznoe variety, one can distinguish:
- Short stature, which facilitates tree care.
- Consistently high fruiting rates.
- The rate of plant growth.
- High rates of frost resistance.
- Average resistance to fungal infections.
The disadvantage of the culture is the darkening of the pulp during storage, as well as the small size of the fruit. The culture is affected by pests such as aphids and leaf flies.
Sizes of an adult tree
The variety of apple trees, Grounded, refers to a variety of dwarf trees. Plant height directly depends on the stock:
- on a seed stock, the culture grows 2.5 m;
- on a vegetative stock, the culture reaches 1.5–2 m.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
Flowering culture begins in late May and lasts from 7 to 20 days. The most favorable period for flowering is stably high air temperature from + 15 ° С to + 22 ° С. Harvesting is possible in early or mid-September.
Due to the early maturity of the tree, the first crop can be harvested after 3 years. The fruiting of the apple tree is Grounded - annual. During the fruiting period, up to 120 kg of apples are harvested from one adult tree.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The resistance of the plant to fungal infections is at an average level. For the variety in question, diseases such as scab, powdery mildew and kleasterosporiosis are especially dangerous. Winter hardiness of the culture is high up to –40 ° С, which allows cultivating the apple tree even in regions with severe climatic features.
Planting a seedling
Planting a seedling should be carried out in a spacious area, on the sunny side. In the area selected for planting an apple tree, there should be no drafts, because strong winds lead to the spread of insects and fungal spores, and also cause breakage of branches. The occurrence of groundwater should be at a depth of 1.5–2 m, so that the rhizome does not decay upon contact with water.
Did you know? Wild apple trees can have a trunk diameter of 40 cm and reach an age of 200 years.
Planting material is chosen in a specialized store or nursery, be sure to pay attention to the vaccination mark, which should become a guarantee of the authenticity of the variety. Select 1–2 year old plants that have reached 50 cm in height and have 4–5 developed shoots.Be sure to inspect the seedling for diaper rash. There should be no cracks, wounds or growths on the aerial part of the plant. Roots should be elastic and flexible, and not brittle and dry. On the shoots, the presence of blossoming leaves is unacceptable.
You can plant an apple crop in regions with a harsh and temperate climate in spring, during the period when snow melts and the air temperature will be stable from + 15 ° С. Such planting dates are needed in order for the seedling to get stronger before winter frosts.
In regions with a warm climate, planting can be done in the autumn. The best time for planting an apple seedling in the fall is the end of September - early October. The planting process should take place 3 weeks before the upcoming frosts.
Land preparation for planting
The soil for planting should be prepared 6 months before the planting process. The entire site must be dug to a depth of 30 cm with humus, using 5 kg of fertilizer per 1 m².An apple tree is planted in soil with a neutral pH. If the soil is acidic, then they must be liming. For the procedure, dolomite flour is taken using 0.5 kg of product per 1 m² for acidic soils and 0.4 g for medium acidity.
A pit for planting is prepared 2 weeks before the process. It is necessary to dig a hole 60 cm deep and 70 wide. The soil layer, which was located at the top of the pit, must be mixed with 15 kg of manure and 300 g of superphosphate. A mixture of soil and fertilizer is introduced into the pit to the middle and watered with 10 liters of water. From above, the pit is covered with plastic wrap and left in this position until the immediate procedure for planting a seedling.
The technology of planting a seedling in a hole:
- Loosen the soil inside the hole and give it a hill shape.
- Drive a peg 2 m high in the middle of the hole.
- Introduce the seedling into the hole, carefully leveling the roots on the embankment from the ground.
- To the top, fill the pit with earth and compactly compact.
- Tie a peg to the seedling.
- Pour a hole of 20 liters of water.
Key Care Features
Caring for an apple tree is not a difficult task that every gardener can do. For the active growth of the culture, timely watering, pruning and fertilizing must be done.
A young tree up to 4 years of age must be watered every 2 weeks. Water is defended for 48 hours and applied in an amount of 20 liters per plant. Mature trees need watering once every 4 weeks. One adult plant will need 40 liters of water.
Important! After each watering and rain, it is necessary to mulch the soil near the trunk, which will help maintain optimal moisture content of the rhizome and have a beneficial effect on the yield and taste of the fruit, because fruits grown with a lack of moisture have a sour taste.
Topping up the apple tree begins with 3 years of growth, because the nutrients that are planted during planting will last for about 2 years.
Every year, the tree needs 4 top dressings, which are carried out according to the scheme:
- First feeding held from March 10 to April 20. You can use fertilizer for digging. It will take 600 g of urea per adult tree.
- Second feeding should be made in late June or early July. For fertilizer use liquid fertilizer from 2.5 kg of manure, diluted in 10 liters of water. One adult plant will require 30 liters of fertilizer.
- From August 20 to September 10 it is necessary to make a third top dressing, consisting of 0.5 kg of nitrofoska, diluted in 10 liters of water. One plant requires 30 l of solution.
- Fourth feeding held after October 20, a few weeks before frost. Fertilizer is applied in an amount of 30 l, it is made from 100 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium and 10 l of water.
Video: express method of feeding apple trees
Cropping and shaping crowns
For the apple tree, the formation of a sparse crown, in several tiers, is suitable. After planting a seedling in the soil, it is necessary to immediately determine the zone of the stem - this is the distance of 50 cm from the soil, which is measured on the trunk. In the zone of the stem, all branches are cut.
Important! The pruning procedure should be carried out only with sharpened and disinfected tools, otherwise there is a risk of infecting the plant with fungal infections or cancer bacteria.
From the zone of the stem, measure another 30 cm upwards and cut off the central shoot, at this distance the first tier of the crown, which should consist of 3 branches, will be located. The first skeletal branch is immediately at the level of the stem 50 cm from the ground, and the other two should be on the opposite side at a distance of 15 cm from each other. The second tier is formed the next year. Having departed from the first tier 50 cm upwards, 3 skeletal branches are left, observing a distance of 15 cm between them.The method of tier sparse formation. Skeletal branches and the central shoot must be shortened by 20 cm so that the crown is proportional. The third tier consists of 1 branch, which is left at a distance of 40 cm from the second tier; the main shoots are also shortened by 20 cm. Forming pruning lasts 3 years. Further annually it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, which consists in the removal of damaged, dry, infected with diseases and pests shoots.Sanitary pruning.
Preparing a tree for wintering is one of the main care activities.
Care before hibernation:
- wrap the trunk with burlap or thick cardboard;
- whitewash the trunk with lime, which will help to avoid settling insects in the cortex and destroy fungal spores;
- harvesting fallen leaves and fruits on the site;
- mulching near the trunk circle with peat;
- to establish a fine mesh in the near-trunk circle, which will protect the bark of the tree from being eaten by rodents.
Pest and Disease Control
Most often, the culture is invaded by aphids and leaf flies. Aphid is a small insect up to 6 mm long, green. Aphids feed on the juice of leaves and flower ovaries, which leads to their drying out and loss of productivity. You can notice aphids on a tree by twisted sheet plates on which there is a sticky coating.
- Manual cleaning of pests from a tree, together with twisted leaves.
- Removing the weed that attracts the insect from the patch.
- Planting under a tree of lavender or lemon balm that repel aphids.
- Spraying with a soap-ash solution. You need 300 g of dust soap, dissolve in 10 l of warm water and add 300 g of wood ash. Irrigation is carried out within 3 days.
Fight against a leaf cloud:
- Anti-aging pruning in the spring.
- Spraying with the drug "Karbofos" 90 g per 10 liters.
Did you know? An apple tree planted by an American named Peter Stewesant near his home in 1647still brings the crop.
The fungus actively multiplies in conditions of high humidity at a temperature of + 20 ° C to + 25 ° C. It appears in the form of a white, powdery coating on the leaves, shoots and flower ovaries. It leads to the death of leaf blades and branches. Fruits infected with the disease have a trace in the form of a circular network of fungal spores.
Measures to control powdery mildew:
- Loosening the soil around the trunk, to prevent the spread of mold.
- Collection of fallen leaves and fruits, their further burning.
- Processing 1% copper sulfate 100 g per 10 liters of water. Irrigation is carried out 3 times, with an interval of 7 days.
- Irrigation of the tree with soapy water and soda for 48 hours, with a repeat of the procedure after 7 days. The solution is prepared from 100 g of liquid soap and 60 g of baking soda, diluted in 10 l of warm water.
Scab is a fungal disease affecting the fruits, branches and leaves of a crop. You can notice the fungus on the tree, by the presence of brown dry spots on the leaves and fruits. Spores can overwinter in the soil on old leaves and fruits, as well as in cracks in the bark of a tree.
Fight with the scab:
- Loosening of soil near the trunk.
- Harvesting fallen leaves and fruits.
- Irrigation with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid 300 g per 10 liters.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting must be done on a dry, sunny day. The fruits are collected in wooden boxes, which are covered with paper. The collected fruits are stacked in several tiers and placed in the basement at a temperature of + 2 ° C. The shelf life of the variety is 2 months.
Gardeners who create a fruit garden need to pay attention to the variety of apples Landed, which is characterized by winter hardiness and high yields. The plant is unpretentious in care, early-growing, which will allow you to get the first harvest of fruits without any special effort in the shortest possible time.