What varieties of apple trees are most suitable for central Russia
When cultivating apple trees, it is necessary first of all to take into account the adaptability of a particular plant to the region of planned cultivation. If in the south any varieties take root and bear fruit well, then in the climate of the middle strip you need to more carefully approach the choice of planting material. The most common and high-yielding varieties adapted to the climate of this region will be discussed below.
Varieties of apple trees for central Russia
Regarding the ripening period, the crops in question are divided into:
- summer - collected from the first decade of August to September 15;
- autumn - mature in September - mid-October;
- winter - removed from trees in October, but their full maturity occurs after 1-2 months of storage.
In addition to the maturity, when choosing a variety, they pay attention to the resistance of plants to fungal infections, such as scab, fruit rot, rust. Also, when choosing varieties, they are guided by the dimensions of the plot for cultivating the tree. Instances with a height of 5–7 m, requiring the presence of nearby pollinators, will not be able to fully develop in an area of less than 10 m².
Below are considered the most popular old and new varieties of apple trees intended for cultivation in the middle climate.
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Summer (early) grades
These varieties of apples do not differ in good keeping quality. Designed for fresh or quick processing.. But they are the most hasty.
Trees of the White Bulk grow up to 4–5 m in height. Young specimens have a pyramidal crown, adults - rounded. The wood of this variety is rough, light gray. Leaves are medium-sized, elliptical in shape. Bottom pubescent, smooth above. The flowers are large, white and pink. Plants are perfectly pollinated independently, so they do not need to be planted next to pollinators.White filling tolerates winter well and can retain the ovary in late spring frosts
Young trees give more powerful fruit. Their mass is 100–150 g. In old specimens, the fruits are small, weighing 60 g each. Apples are white with a greenish tint, rounded in shape. With sufficient lighting, a delicate pink blush appears on the apples. The skin is tender. The internal cavity is delicate in structure, similar to melting snow. The taste is sweet and sour. The fruits are not transportable. Cultivate the variety for quick processing and eating fresh.
White filling tolerates frosts well. Harvest yields from 5-6 years. The average figure is 200 kg per plant. The first fruits that have reached removable maturity are harvested in the first decade of August. Harvest yield is one month.
Did you know? By the popularity of consumption, apples occupy the 3rd place in the world. The first and second are mango and banana.
The variety is ubiquitous. The trees are medium-sized, 3 m high. The crown is wide-round, with medium foliage. The leaves are oval, slightly curved. The bark is smooth, brown. The flowers are large, white-pink with a lilac shimmer.
The fruits are medium large (weight varies between 120-200 g). The shape is rounded flattened or rounded conical. The peel is not coarse, but quite dense. It is painted in greenish-yellow color with a cover striped pink-red blush, localized around the perimeter. The pulp is snow-white, very tender in structure, juicy. The taste of fruits is sweet and sour.
Apples ripen not at a time, but stretched in time, which allows 1.5 months to remove fresh fruits
The rate of maturity of the culture in question is high. With good agricultural technology, the tree enters the breeding phase for 3-4 years. The average yield is 50–80 kg per plant.
Winter hardiness is average. In severe frosts, when the temperature drops to –30 ° C, the bark and young branches suffer from burns. The tendency to self-pollination is low, so when growing should take care of the presence of pollinating plants. In addition, cultivating this variety should take care of high-quality preventive treatments, as its resistance to scab is low.
One of the oldest species related to immune. This means that the plants of the species are highly resistant to scab, moniliosis and strong temperature fluctuations (tolerate frost up to –40 ° C).
Lungwort is a fairly tall (4–5 m) tree. The crown has a pyramidal structure, sparse, with slightly hanging shoots. Midwifery is average. The leaves are narrow, curved to the center. The flowers are saucer-shaped, white and pink.
Lungwort is recognized by gardeners as one of the best summer sweet apple trees of early ripening
The culture enters the breeding phase for 4–5 years. The fruits ripen early - in early August. The yield of the crop is extended for a month. Fruits are flat-shaped. The main color is yellow-green, integumentary from pale red to bright crimson. The weight of the fruit varies between 100-150 g. The inner cavity is white, tender, juicy. The fruit tastes very sweet, spicy.
One of the distinguishing qualities is the ability develop well and bear fruit even in areas with a high occurrence of groundwater.
Did you know? One mid-sized apple tree produces the amount of oxygen needed to meet the daily requirements for two adults.
Autumn (medium) varieties
Apples of autumn varieties are characterized by a long shelf life (3-4 months). Used in commercial activities, cooking and suitable for fresh consumption. The plants themselves are characterized by higher resistance to negative environmental factors and diseases.
Autumn striped (Streifling, or Shtrifel)
Variety Shtrifel popular among gardeners since the XVIII century. Trees of this variety are tall, powerful, with a spreading crown. The height of the adult specimen can reach 8–10 m. The ends of the shoots are slightly pubescent. The leaves are saturated green, rounded and broadly oval. The flowers are pink, large.
When choosing a landing site, you need to remember the wide crown of an adult tree and take care of enough living space for the apple tree
Fruits are broadly conical, rounded, with pronounced ribbing. Painted in yellow-green color, with a strong integumentary blush, manifested by frequent red-pink stripes. With good agricultural technology, the weight of the fruit is 140 g. The pulp is white, sometimes with a pinkish tint, closer to the peel. The structure is coarse-grained, loose, very juicy. It tastes sweet and sour with a spicy wine or raspberry hue.
It enters the fruiting phase by 7–9 years. Very rarely, with good care, the Autumn striped apple tree begins to bear fruit in the 5th year. The fruits ripen by the beginning of September. Productivity increases with plant age. At the age of ten it is 10 kg, for 13-15 years you can already remove about 100 kg per season from the plant. Instances older than 25 years produce 300 kg of apples per year. Plants are highly resistant to scab and pests, tolerate frosts. Belongs to self-infertile speciestherefore, pollinating plants are needed to get the crop.
Important! A tall apple tree can be not only a fruit crop, but also become an accent in the landscape design of the garden, if you choose the right composition.
The first mention of the Cinnamon Striped dates back to 1810. The variety is ubiquitous. Trees are powerful large, with a wide spreading crown. Suitable for cultivation in large areas.. The shoots of the tree are long, fragile. The number of branches is scarce. Particularly pronounced exposure in the lower part of the stem. The leaves are elongated, narrowed to the base. The flowers are medium sized, light pink.
If there is an apiary near the site, the yield of this apple tree will increase 1.5-2 times!
The fruits are small - from 60 to 90 g, very rarely 140 g. They are similar in shape to turnips, strongly flattened in the lower and upper parts. At the time of ripe ripeness, the apples are painted in a light green color. After a month of storage, they reach physical maturity, acquiring a yellow tint. The integumentary coloration looks like sharply defined stripes of red color. The pulp is of dense structure, yellowish in color, very juicy. It has a sweet and sour taste, with a pleasant cinnamon hue.
The plant enters the fruiting phase in the 7th year, with poor quality care only in the 10th. Productivity is not high enough for a long-growing tree and is about 80-100 kg. Consumer shelf life of fruit with proper storage is 5–6 months. The plant is resistant to scab, tolerates frosts up to –40 ° C.
Did you know? It accumulates 1 ha of deciduous tree plantations and then returns 50 m³ of moisture to the atmosphere.
Belongs to the columnar varietiesderived relatively recently. Plant height does not exceed 2 m. The variety is resistant to scab pathogens. It is distinguished by good productivity, high palatability and decorativeness. Poorly tolerates frosts above –25 ° C.
The yield of one plant is 10 kg, and with good care - 15-18 kg. Fruits are medium and large, weighing 100, 150 and 200 g.
Fruits of the same size, spherical, flattened above and below. The color of the fruit is red. The peel is glossy with a thin wax coating. On the cut apples are very juicy, fine-grained in texture. Their taste is sweet and sweet with barely noticeable sourness and honey tones.
The fruits reach mature maturity in September. They are suitable for food in the same period. Keep fresh no more than 4 weeks. In terms of destination are universal. Trees enter the fruiting phase for 2-3 years. Peak yields reach for 4-5 years and keep it for at least 10 years.
Winter (late) varieties
Later varieties of apples are distinguished by their ability to maintain freshness for 6–8 months. While maintaining optimal conditions, the consumer period can be extended to the next harvest.
The saffron Pepin apple tree is characterized by an average degree of growth. The height of the adult specimen is 3–3.5 m. The crown is round, dense, with slightly dangling, very pubescent shoots. Leaf plates are small, oval, very pubescent. Painted in a bluish color.
The variety is self-fertile and does not need pollinating neighbors. Fruits in 4-5 years. Harvesting falls at the end of September. The fruits reach full maturity after 1.5 months of storage. Without loss of quality and external indicators, the fruits are stored for 220 days from the date of collection. Productivity is consistently high, without periods of downtime. It is 220–280 kg per plant.
Apples are high in ascorbic acid and sugars.
Apples are small and medium. Weight 80–140 g. Their peel is smooth, shiny, slightly oily to the touch from natural wax. The structure of the fruit is round-conical. Ribbing is weak, closer to the bottom. The main color is yellow with a greenish tint and an integumentary red blush around the perimeter. The pulp is densely structured, creamy. It has a pleasant dessert, sweet and sour fresh taste and a rich spicy-fruity aroma.
The variety has low resistance to scab and other fungal pathogens. Medium tolerance against moth. Winter hardiness is average. The plant withstands frost up to –20 ° C, but has good regenerative ability.
Did you know? Trees are 98% composed of dead tissue, and only 2% are living, which are responsible for photosynthesis and nutrition.
This variety is new. varieties of Belarusian breeding. The maximum height of Imanta is 2.5–3 m. The crown is medium spreading. The number of shoots is average. The tree enters the fruiting phase in the 3rd year.Productivity is up to 40 kg, which is not bad for medium-sized plants.Keep apples from falling
The fruits are harvested in early October. Ripen apples during storage. Full disclosure of taste is observed closer to the New Year holidays or even towards the end of February. Fruits are one-dimensional, roundish. The main tone of the peel is greenish-yellow, but it is completely hidden under a rich crimson blush with a purple tint. The weight of one fruit is an average of 170 g. Vanilla-cream apples with a loose, grainy, very juicy texture are on the cut. It tastes good, with pronounced sweetness and sourness.
The variety tolerates frosts up to –25 ° С, which is enough for cultivation in the middle lane. Flower buds and young shoots are resistant to return frosts. The species has scab resistance.
A tall-growing tree, 5–6 m high. The crown is initially pyramidal, and over the years is transformed into a broad-oval. The property is scarce. The leaves are very large, ellipsoidal.
Apples are large, weighing from 165 g to 235 g, rounded, slightly elongated. The main color is vanilla with a green tint, the integument is expressed by a faint pinkish blush. The internal cavity is white, densely structured, fine-grained, emits a lot of juice. The taste is sweet and sour, with a pronounced spicy hue.Removable maturity coincides with consumer
Removable maturity coincides with consumer, occurs around the end of September. Fruits retain their qualities until the next harvest. Fruits a tree from 10 years. The average yield is 160 kg per plant. The variety is highly resistant to low temperatures and scab.
Planting dates for apples in central Russia
In the region in question apple trees are planted in spring. Depending on the weather conditions of a particular period from April 15–20 to mid-May. When planting in the fall, the trees do not have time to root well, so they often die.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
Features of planting and care
Landing area is prepared in the fall. At the initial stage, it is cleaned of vegetation, dug to a depth of 30 cm and the soil is disinfected with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. After a week, for every 1 m² 10 kg of sand and peat, 20 kg of manure and 400 g of superphosphate are added. After fertilizing, the site is again dug up to a depth of 30 cm.
Important! On heavy soils during site preparation, increase the amount of sand and peat to be added to 20–30 kg / m².
A month before planting, another cultivation is carried out and 20 kg of compost is applied to each 1 m². A week before planting form landing pits. For medium-tall and tall varieties, the size of the holes should be 60–70 × 100 cm, for low-growing and column-shaped 50 × 70 cm. The upper part of the soil from the pit is mixed with 10 kg of compost and 2 tbsp. l urea. With this mixture, alternating it with clean soil, a third of the hole is filled. A stake is set in the center and 20 liters of water are poured.
Before planting, in the center of the pit, a mound is formed on which the roots of the plant are set. Be sure to align the root neck, which is 5 cm above the main root. After falling asleep, the root neck should be 5 cm above the soil level. Having gently straightened the rhizome in the hole, alternating layers of fertile and clean soil, fill the pit. The near-stem circle is compacted and 10–20 L of water is poured.
Video: Planting an apple tree
In the first year, watering is carried out weekly. From the second year about once a month. Fertilizers also begin to be applied from the second year after planting. In the spring, before budding, make 6 tbsp. urea or nitrofoski dissolved in 30 l of water. After flowering, 30 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate are used. After harvesting, 90 g of superphosphate and 10 kg of rotted manure are added for digging.
Fruiting plants contribute moisture along with fertilizers according to the scheme:
- before flowering;
- after flowering;
- in the middle of summer;
- after harvesting.
Low-growing varieties at a time contribute 20-30 liters of water, tall - up to 80 liters.So, with an excess of nitrogen, the apple tree gains green mass, but practically does not bear fruit
Obligatory agricultural technique is loosening of the soil after each watering and rain. Cultivation is carried out to a depth of about 10 cm. Along the way, weeds are removed. Immediately after loosening, the soil is mulched with compost or sand with sawdust (1: 1). The height of the mulching layer is 5–7 cm.
After harvesting, a week later, the soil is watered, fertilized, loosened and mulched with a layer of rotted manure to a height of 10 cm. The trunk is whitened to a height of 1 m from the soil level. The first 3-4 years, the trunk must be wrapped in burlap. This is necessary to protect immature plants from adverse weather conditions.
In spring and autumn, preventive treatments are necessarily carried out with copper sulfate or Fitosporin according to the instructions.
From the second year of plant life, forming trimming begins. Usually the procedure looks like shortening the main conductor to the optimal height convenient for the farmer. Depending on this height, skeletal shoots are shortened so that they are 20 cm less than the main one.
Important! When pruning, use only a clean garden tool and always disinfect the cuts.
In the first year of pruning, leave up to 5 main shoots growing above 50 cm from the soil level, all the rest are removed. In the following years, 2 second-order conductors are left on each skeletal shoot, and they act in the same way when forming the third tier of branches.
To obtain a decent crop and high consumer quality fruit, the plant needs annual pruning and shaping, as well as systematic nutrition
Tips from experienced gardeners
A few recommendations of experienced gardeners regarding the cultivation of apple trees in the middle lane:
- To increase the yield and quality of the fruit, try to plant at least 2-3 plants near the same flowering period.
- Always remove fallen leaves and fruits from the area to avoid the spread of pests and diseases.
- Do not neglect preventive treatments, even if the originators of the variety have declared a high resistance of the variety to specific diseases. With increased humidity and temperature fluctuations, fungal spores multiply very quickly, so even the most resistant plants can become infected.
- Plant trees at a distance of at least 4 m from each other - when planting thickens, the nutrition area for plant roots decreases, and the risk of the spread of diseases and pests increases.
- Do not be zealous with watering, but bring water, focusing on weather conditions. Apple trees tolerate short-term drought better than waterlogging.
- Buy plant seedlings only at points that offer regionalized goods for a particular area.
A large number of apple varieties are successfully growing and bearing fruit in central Russia. Competent selection of a zoned variety and a properly prepared schedule of seasonal work are the key to successful gardening.