Features of the planting of the apple tree Iserta Isaeva and its care
Obtaining high yields, not least, depends on the selected variety, which is why the Desertnoye Isaev apple tree has been popular among gardeners for more than 50 years. Read about this apple tree and how to grow it.
Description and characteristics of the variety
In the 70s of the last century, apple trees bred by Professor S.I. Isaev occupied about 40% of collective farm orchards. Work under his leadership at the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding them. Michurin has led to the creation of more than 40 different varieties with excellent characteristics. Dessert Isaeva is one of these works. The purpose of the development of the variety was an increased fruit life. Its apples have excellent taste.
The tree is obtained from crossing varieties of Welsey and Brown Striped. Originally intended for the temperate continental climate of Udmurtia. Here the average winter temperature is about –14 ° С, therefore the tree cannot be called too hardy. In summer, the Atlantic brings warm and humid air, therefore apple tree adapted to high humidity.A tree is characterized by an average growth force, but the main feature is drooping branches, so the gardener should pay special attention to the formation of the crown. Pruning branches that are low to the ground will help protect it from fungal diseases, and thinning the crown will serve as a preventive protective measure against pests on its branches. The shape of the crown changes with development, but tends to be rounded.
The variety refers to dessert. Flowering occurs in mid-May. The tree is evenly covered with medium-sized pink and white flowers. The collection of the first fruits will be possible for 3-6 years after planting a seedling. Having come into full force, an adult tree is able to bear up to 100 kg of fruit per year. The variety is characterized by stable yield. Eannually in August, juicy, medium-sized, aromatic fruits ripen.
Did you know? It is claimed that US President George Washington was fond of growing apple trees. This helped him deal with stress.
Description of the variety Dessert Isaev:
- basic: self-fertile, not requiring pollinators, early autumn, productive, withstands frosts of –14 ° C and tolerates humidity, is resistant to scab.
- crown: voluminous, in an adult tree - almost round;
- shoots: smooth, thin, long, prone to the formation of an obtuse angle at the connection with the trunk;
- apples: round, weighing up to 120-130 g;
- skin tone: in technical maturity - green, in ripened form - yellow with intense pink blush;
- peel: thin;
- pulp texture: medium density, juicy, delicate, white;
- taste: apple, sweet and sour;
- tasting characteristic: high;
- productivity: you can collect 100 kg from one apple tree;
- fruit keeping time, as in summer varieties - no more than 2 months, without loss of quality - 1 month.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Grade advantages:
- excellent dessert taste of fruits;
- annual fruiting;
- the presence of immunity against scab.
- The disadvantages of the variety:
- flowering needs to be regulated, since with a large number of ovaries the fruits become small;
- it is necessary to control the development of the branches of the crown, periodically pruning long ones.
The variety was specially bred for Udmurtia, so it is most common there. Apple trees can also be grown in any other region with moderate winters.Given that the apple tree is adapted to a humid climate and a sharp change of seasons, we can talk about its moderate resistance to fungal diseases.
Did you know? To get a dwarf or semi-dwarf tree about 2.5 m high, you need to plant an apple tree on the corresponding stock. The yield and disease resistance of the apple tree also depend on the stock.
The variety is self-pollinated. But some gardeners believe that planting next to a second tree increases the percentage of fruit formation from existing ovaries. If you decide to follow this advice, you will need a tree whose flowering occurs in April.
The yield of one tree is about 100 kg of fruit. The apple tree reaches this indicator gradually, during the first 10 years of growth and development. Taste qualities of fruits are characterized as high.Dessert Isaev's apples have the highest gustatory characteristics.
When planting apple trees, the following parameters should be considered:
- microclimate in the region;
- conditions for growth in the selected area.
This apple tree is one of the most unpretentious in the care and cultivation, so choosing the right site will help you practically solve all problems from diseases to high yields.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the summer varieties of apple trees:
Choosing the best seedling
Undoubtedly, the quality of planting material is extremely important for future crops. To do this, he must be developed and healthy. A good seedling is characteristic of:
- age: no more than 2 years;
- number of branches: not less than 5;
- trunk: smooth, with a bark of a saturated healthy color, without deformations and signs of diseases or their treatment;
- bark color: brown;
- roots: powerful, branched, white and fibrous at the cut;
- kidneys: not blooming.
The tree must be proportionately developed. Branches should not be directed in one direction. The central root should not be broken. If it is damaged, refuse to purchase. Such a seedling does not take root.
Important! If the buds have blossomed, rooting of the apple tree will be problematic. You should refrain from such a purchase.
Choosing a favorable place
The tree will need 6–8 hours of bright sunshine during the day. Its presence helps prevent the onset and development of fungal diseases. Given that the amount of sunlight decreases in winter, make sure that no shadows from buildings or other trees fall on the tree. Soil should not hold water. It may not be nutritious, but not swampy. It is not recommended to plant trees on stony soils. If it is sandy, the water will leave too quickly and the plant will suffer from its lack. To prevent this from happening, balance the soil composition by changing the ratio of clay and sand.Also consider the following factors:
- lack of communications or highways in the ground, which can be damaged by developing roots;
- lack of interference over the crown - power lines and others;
- growing, trees should not interfere with each other, which means between adjacent apples should be 4-5 m.
Important! Apple seeds contain cyanide, which is a deadly poison. A fatal dose will be 200 seeds if you chew and swallow them carefully, so do not consume them in large quantities.
Landing is carried out in early spring, as soon as spring frosts pass or in autumn, in September. But in the fall, only apple trees with a strong stock and developed root system can be planted. A day for planting is chosen sunny, with a temperature not lower than + 10 ° C.
- Dig the area by removing stones and weeds.
- Dig holes for apple trees, about 0.8 m deep, with the same diameter. The distance between them should be about 4 m.
- If the soil is clay, the soil is diluted with sand and vice versa. To increase soil fertility, you can mix the soil with a bucket of rotted manure.
- Place the prepared mixture on the bottom of the pit.
- Set the apple tree in the center.
- Next to it, place a stake to which the tree will be tied for stability.
- Add soil and compact it around the apple tree.
- Pour the seedling.
Water the tree 2-3 times a week. The volume of water is 1 bucket. This is necessary to create the best conditions for rooting.
Video: instructions for planting an apple tree
The variety is unpretentious, therefore, only generally accepted measures are required. The only feature of Dessert Isaev is that he needs careful monitoring of the state of the crown and timely trimming.
Tree care consists of:
- regular watering;
- removal of weeds from the near-trunk zone;
- fertilizer application;
- crown formation and trimming;
- Autumn cleaning of the garden and preparation for winter.
Did you know? If you like variety, you can organize it by grafting several different varieties on one tree. Thus, you can preserve the memory of trees that you removed from the site due to their respectable age.
The yield of trees depends on watering. A lack of moisture can reduce it. In addition, in different periods of the apple tree need a different amount of water. In the first year after planting, watering is carried out 2 times a week. The roots of the seedling are still weak and will not be able to reach the water, which is far from them. The next 2-3 years it is watered once a week. An adult tree is enough to water 1 time in 2 weeks or 1 time per month.Dessert Isaeva does not belong to drought tolerant varieties, so it is advisable to follow the watering schedule. Excess water is just as harmful as its lack. If it rains and excess moisture, watering is not needed. The roots of the trees in the wetlands cease to grow. They cannot provide the apple tree with nutrients, since they do not absorb them. As a result, the tree may die.
Did you know? European folk wisdom says that the crown of an apple tree should be so thin that a gardener's hat can fly through it. Such a tree absorbs less water due to the smaller volume of leaves, which means it bears fruit better, since it directs energy to the fruits.
The growth rate of a healthy adult tree is 30-60 cm. If this is the case, then you do not need to fertilize the apple tree. She receives from the soil all the necessary substances. If the tree is frail, then they must be fed. Fertilizers can be of organic and inorganic origin. Organics are manure, compost, humus, meat and bone meal and other products of plant or animal origin. Inorganic fertilizers are complex or those that contain one of the main components - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. If 9-3-0 is indicated on the package with fertilizers, this means that it contains 9% nitrogen, 3% phosphorus and no potassium.The choice of fertilizer type depends on the gardener. Each of them has features. So, organic fertilizers decompose more slowly and are absorbed in parts, so they are applied during planting. If you need to quickly feed the plant, then inorganic water-soluble mixtures are added. In the spring, before the start of the vegetative cycle, it is recommended to add ammonium nitrate - 40 g or 600 g of urea. These drugs are sources of nitrogen. Their introduction is mandatory if the tree has a small increase. In summer, 70 g of potassium sulfate or other potash fertilizers are added. In mid-summer or near the end, superphosphate 40 g or another source of phosphate fertilizers is applied.
Video: how to fertilize an apple tree
Correct pruning depends not only on the season, but also on how the tree is predisposed to form a crown. Pruning is planned for the winter, when the tree is at rest. For young non-bearing seedlings, pruning is not carried out. A cut for a tree can have the same consequences as for you. Pathogens penetrate the cut. And this is another reason for winter pruning. The incision should be made as clearly and necessarily disinfected as possible.If you need to prune several fruit trees, regardless of type, then before starting work with the next tree, the tool is again decontaminated.In order for the tree to recover faster after pruning, the places of the cuts are disinfected with a mixture of lime and copper sulfate (in a ratio of 10: 1) and covered with oil paint or garden varnish. Due to this, the tree sap will not flow out of the wounds. The pruning of plants consists of two parts. The central or leading branch should not be trimmed. Most of the side shoots are removed. It is important to remove all branches that will create a thickened crown. When the tree reaches a height of 1 m, the central trunk is shortened by 30–40 cm. This stimulates the development of lateral branches. You need to leave 4 of them, thus forming the shape of a “vase”. Unwanted side branches need to be cut out at the base without leaving a “stump”.
Dessert Isaeva variety withstands frosts down to –14 ° С; therefore, it is recommended for cultivation in areas with a mild-cold winter. To tolerate frost, tree branches are lignified. To do this, they stop watering the tree in August and do not fertilize in the fall. This is enough to stop growth, and the branches began to prepare for winter.
Did you know? To apple trees began to bear fruit, you need at least 5 years. And for full-sized apple trees — it's all 10 years old. If you have a dog, it's almost a lifetime for her!
You will also need to complete the following activities:
- Remove leaves, weeds and carrion from the garden.
- Dig up the soil to reduce the population of pests that have prepared for wintering.
- Place the mulch in the near-stem zone. It will serve as an insulating layer and will not allow the roots to freeze during frosts.
- Whiten the trunk to protect it from cracking during extremes of day and night temperatures in winter.
Possible growing difficulties
Dessert Isaeva is immune to scab and resistant to fungal diseases, as it is intended for cultivation in a humid climate. This is one of the main criteria when choosing varieties for your own garden - disease resistance. In autumn, fallen leaves and carrion are harvested in the garden, as well as fruits that remain on the trees, both healthy and diseased, are removed. This slows down or stops the spread of disease.
The main difficulties in growing apple trees:Insects are no less dangerous than diseases, therefore, preventive spraying with insecticides is used against them. Among them are both general-purpose preparations and preparations for specific insects. When using any of them, follow the directions on the packaging regarding the dosages and types of trees for which you are using the product.
Important! Any preparations are applied to the tree by spraying either before flowering, or a few days after. During flowering, they are not used, so as not to harm the insect pollinators.
The main pest of the apple tree is the moth. On the surface of the apples, you can see the points through which the larvae got into the ovary. They develop internally with the fetus itself. The first spraying from the codling moth is performed immediately after the apple trees bloom, and then it is repeated several times after 3 weeks. This is due to the fact that over the summer several generations of moths of the moth are formed.Farmers also use insect traps to control pests. Inside they are covered with a sticky substance to which moths adhere. The rate of trap placement is 1 per 100 apples. They are placed on the outside of the tree, pockmarked with fruit, but so that the moth is convenient to get to them.
Harvesting and storage
When the fruits are in the stage of technical maturity, they are green. As they ripen, they acquire a natural hue for the variety - yellow with a raspberry rich blush. This is one of the signs of fruit ripening. How to pick apples:
- Place your palm under the fruit. Grab the apple and turn in one motion. If it comes off the branch, then it's time to harvest.
- Pull fruit by force is not necessary. You can break a branch on which the next year’s harvest buds are already laid.
- Sort all picked fruits. Put damaged, bumped and deformed ones aside and recycle or eat in kind.
- Sort the rest by size and put in boxes or boxes. To prevent the fruits from rubbing against each other, shift them with paper or other material.
The Isaeva Dessert variety is an excellent choice for fruit quality and yield. Its stable yield has made it popular in the gardens of the Soviet era. Considering resistance to diseases and unpretentiousness, it is suitable for growing even for beginners.