Features of growing and caring for the apple tree
The apple tree is considered one of the most common fruit plants in both temperate and other climatic zones. Today, there are a huge number of all kinds of apple trees, characterized by a unique shape, color and aroma. But, not all successful varieties are appreciated and have gained real popularity. From this article, you can learn in detail all the features, as well as the main distinguishing qualities of the apple of the Anniversary, from related varieties.
Botanical description and characteristics of the apple tree
Apple Tree Jubilee is considered one of the traditional representatives of late summer crops, designed for intensive cultivation in a temperate climate. The plant was received a long time ago, the first seedlings with stable varietal characteristics were born in 1982, after which the plant was zoned by 1995. The most acceptable zone for growing plants is considered the territory of the Central Black Earth and Central regions of Russia.
Did you know? The most expensive apples in the world are the fruits of the variety Sekaiichi, the hybrid was bred in Japan in 1974, and is grown only in a limited area. The average price for 1 fruit starts from $ 21 US.
Description of fruits and tree
All representatives of the jubilee cultivar are medium-sized, compact tree-like species, with a rounded crown, of medium density. The height of the tree is about 4 m, the diameter of the crown does not exceed 3-4 m. The branches are twisty, their main mass is directed downward. The bark of the hybrid is smooth, painted in gray. The leaves of the plant are quite large, rounded, slightly pointed, of a saturated green color. The plant is notable for quite intensive growth rates, so the seedling begins to bear fruit early.The characteristics of the variety allow it to be grown both in small orchards and in large horticultural enterprises. The fruits of the Jubilee are of medium size, weighing about 140 g. The shape of the apples is round-conical, their surface is smooth, slightly ribbed. The skin color is green, in the phase of full ripening, the hue changes to yellow-green. On top of the main color, a pale pink blush appears. The fruit pulp is juicy, dense, but tender, crisp, cream-colored. The taste of apples is bright and saturated, characterized by moderate sweetness and acidity. Tasting assessment of apples is 4.2 points, appearance is estimated at 4.4.
Did you know? The oldest apple tree grows in the United States, near New York. The tree is about 400 years old, but it bears fruit well to this day.
Pros and cons of the variety Jubilee
- The main beneficial qualities of the variety:
- high productivity;
- stable crops every year;
- unpretentiousness in leaving and growing conditions;
- The hybrid tolerates cold weather and other adverse weather conditions.
Variety Yubilyar is not demanding on pollinators; any productive variety of late summer ripening season is suitable for these purposes. Among them, the most popular are hybrids:
- Red sweet;
- Cinnamon striped;
- The beauty of the garden;
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the summer varieties of apple trees:
The yield of the hybrid is quite high. Subject to all cultivation conditions, as well as the basics of agricultural care technology, in case of mass planting, the variety can produce about 150-200 c / ha.Under optimal conditions, productivity increases to 250 kg / ha.
Features of planting and care for the apple tree
Like any fruit plant, the apple tree Jubileera for early growth and fruiting requires attention during planting and care. Therefore, when growing a plant, all the subtleties of the agricultural technology of its cultivation should be observed. Otherwise, the young tree will suffer from the suppression of immunity, and its productivity will not reach a biologically sound norm.
Planting an apple tree, including the Yubileynoye variety, is considered a simple and undemanding procedure among most gardeners. However, in fact, this process requires the exact observance of many agricultural practices, without which its success will be in question. First of all, they provide for the selection of high-quality seedlings and the preparation of a site on the site.Under the autumn planting, you should not make nitrogen fertilizers, so as not to provoke the beginning of growth during the dormant period.
The selection of quality seedlings for planting
When buying seedlings, you should definitely pay attention to the appearance of the plant. A quality copy should have the following characteristics:
- 1-2 years old, older or younger seedlings take root slowly, and often get sick. Determining the age of the apple tree is not difficult, by about 2 years old such plants have no more than 2-3 shoots, and their height in most cases does not exceed 150 cm;
- elastic and moist roots, a dry root system indicates improper storage of the seedling. It is best if the root system is covered with a damp, natural cloth. Failure to do so often threatens the tree with slow death;
- the root system should not be covered with putrefactive foci or growths, otherwise there is an infection of the apple tree with infections;
- bright, green-brown color of the bark;
- the plant should be holistic, without any signs of damage.
Choosing a place to land
The selection of the optimal place for planting an apple tree is referred to no less important stages than the selection of high-quality seedlings. The procedure makes it possible to select the microclimate necessary for the successful growth and development of the apple tree. Therefore, so that the plant is distinguished by excellent productivity, it should be planted in open and well-lit areas. The deficit of light is fatal for the apple tree, which often even provokes its withering and death. To avoid this, the tree must be planted no closer than 4-5 m from the garden buildings or other tree-like vegetation.
Important! If the garden is near the fields, along its perimeter should be planted sea buckthorn or mountain ash. This will help create a powerful barrier from drafts and strong winds that are detrimental to most cultural species.
However, such a place must be protected from drafts, as well as strong winds. The apple tree is a moisture-loving plant, however, the increased humidity in the area is fatal to it. therefore the landing site should be located on a hill with a groundwater level of at least 2.5 m. Variety Yubilyar is not demanding on the soil, while the highest yield is observed on well-fertilized sandy-loamy or loamy soils, with a pH in the range of 6.5–7.
Qualified planting of apple trees provides for the following rules:
- if no more than 1 seedling is planted on the site, the plant is planted arbitrarily, at a distance of at least 4-5 m from garden buildings or other fruit and ornamental trees;
- during mass planting, the apple tree is planted in a row-wise way, with a distance of 4.5–5 m between adjacent trees, and an aisle of 3–3.5 m;
- in the case of the formation of a compact apple tree with a height of not more than 2.5 m, the distance in the row is reduced to 4 m, and the row spacing is reduced to 2.5 m;
- plant seedlings in a hole at least 70 cm deep and 1 m in diameter.
Video: instructions for planting an apple tree
Watering and feeding
Subject to all landing rules, the apple tree needs watering only 4-5 times per season. Water is most intensively applied to the site during the summer drought, so at least 3 procedures per season should be in the midst of summer. In case of excessive drought, the multiplicity of procedures is increased, up to 4 per month. In spring and autumn, water the plot no more than 1 time, in autumn it is done before preparing the plants for wintering, in spring - during the swelling of leaf buds.Depending on age, 10-20 to 50 liters of water are poured under 1 plant. In one season, the apple tree needs at least 2 top dressings. But, if you want to get a healthy and productive plant, the multiplicity of the procedure must be increased to 4.
Important! During autumn planting, it is forbidden to make nitrogen fertilizers on the site. This will provoke active growth of the seedling during the dormant period, which can cause its death.
In this case, the fertilizer of the garden is carried out according to the following scheme:
- in early spring - 5 buckets of humus, 400-500 g of urea, 30 g of nitroammophoska and 20 g of potassium nitrate;
- early flowering - a solution of 5 l of liquid manure, 2 l of bird droppings, 200 g of urea, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate (per 10 l of water);
- in the middle of summer and before wintering - a mixture of 2 tbsp. l superphosphate and 1 tbsp. potassium chloride (per 10 liters of water).
Video: feeding apple trees
Cropping and shaping the crown
The pruning procedure involves shortening and thinning the plant, as well as the formation of the crown. They are made in most cases in the spring, before the appearance of the buds, but it is also permissible to cut the apple tree in the fall, after harvesting the fruits. Shorten the tree as necessary - to slow down growth, as well as the activity of growing green mass and branches.
To do this, each branch is cut by about a third. Apple trees begin to form in the second year after planting. The branches are formed so that, as the trunk grows, they are connected into horizontal cascades at a distance of 50–65 cm between them. At the same time, each cascade should have no more than 5 branches.The tier crown is considered the most popular among gardeners, which helps to achieve uniform distribution of branches in the crown. Often the formation of the crown lasts about 6 seasons, after which the apple tree is periodically sanitized from about 10 years of age. During this pruning, old, dry and damaged branches are removed. This allows not only to rid the tree of infertile branches, but also to avoid shading of fruits, which speeds up the time of their ripening at times.
Video: pruning an apple tree
Despite the fact that many gardeners neglect whitewashing, only this procedure can protect the apple tree from parasite damage, as well as remove their larvae. In addition, whitewashing is able to reflect the sun's rays, which in hot summer makes it possible to avoid overheating of the apple tree.They begin to whiten the apple tree in the middle of spring, approximately in the second half of April, and then whitewash is renewed as necessary. To do this, about 300 g of powder is dissolved in 2 l of pure water. To increase the efficiency of the procedure, 5 g of DDT (or an analogue) and copper sulfate are additionally added to the liquid. To increase the viscosity of the substance and its resistance to bark, 300 ml of fresh milk or 300 g of clay can be added to the mixture. The apple tree is treated only with a homogeneous mixture, so before use, the liquid should be thoroughly mixed and shaken.
In addition to pre-winter watering and fertilizer, the apple tree necessarily requires protection from the cold. So that the plant does not freeze, the trunk, as well as the root layer of the soil needs to be well insulated. Make it a dense burlap, hay or straw. They wrap a tree from the ground zone to the first tier of branches. Burlap is laid in several layers, hay and straw with a thickness of at least 10 cm. The insulation is fastened to the tree with a durable twine.After that, the root layer of the soil is also insulated, along the trunk ring. To do this, the soil is mulched with sawdust, pine needles, tree bark, husk seeds, coconut coir, etc. In this case, the thickness of the mulch should not be less than 15 cm. After the first snow, the mulch is additionally covered with snow, which improves its thermal insulation properties at times.
Diseases and Pests
Variety Jubilee is resistant to many diseases and pests, but the plant necessarily needs treatments. They increase the immunity of the tree, and also protect it from reduced productivity. Means are used to treat branches and green mass, they are carried out as the problem arises or for prophylaxis, three times per season: during bud swelling, before fruit is loaded, and 30 days before harvest.
The most effective preparations for processing apple trees:
|Against infections||From pests|
Harvesting and storage
Depending on weather conditions, harvesting is carried out from mid-August to early September. The collection of fruits begins after they acquire a characteristic yellow hue and blush. Store apples in a dry, cool and well-ventilated place, away from other fruits. Therefore, the most acceptable place for this is considered a cellar.
Fruits are placed in small boxes in 2-3 layers, which are installed at a distance of at least 30 cm from the walls and floor. The crop is stored at a temperature of about + 10 ° C, but the highest keeping time of apples is observed when the indicator drops to 0 ... + 5 ° C. As they are stored, apples are sorted out, otherwise even one rotten fruit can cause damage to the entire crop.Anniversary - a profitable and fairly unpretentious apple variety. The plant is well suited for temperate climatic zones, where it gives the highest yields. To plant and grow this apple tree is not difficult, but the plant should create the appropriate care. It provides for timely watering, fertilizer, pruning, as well as shelter for the winter. Otherwise, the variety will not be able to please with abundant harvests.
Apple Jubilee this year, being thinned out by a flower beetle, breaks records of its size and ribbed. I love him not for taste, but for cleanliness, juiciness and annual reliability.