Features of the apple tree Martovskoe
The gardener always tries to get apple trees, whose apples would be kept as long as possible. This ability boasts a variety of domestic selection Martovskoe. Its fruits are stored under optimal conditions until spring. We will get acquainted with the description and characteristics of the Martovskoe apple variety, cultivation agricultural technique, fruit collection and storage.
History of Variety Breeding
The apple variety Martovskoe was developed by employees of the Horticultural Research Institute. Michurin in 1971 on the basis of the Macintosh variety and domestic Antonovka vulgaris. The authors are Ivanova Z.I., Isaev S.I., Lobanova G.A., Zaets V.K. This winter variety got its name for the ability of apples to be stored without loss of taste until March days. Its entry into the State Register took place only in 1993. Zoning of the variety occurred in the Central and Middle Volga regions, but it gained popularity in the adjacent areas.
Important! The March apple variety is self-fertile and it needs pollinating trees. Next to it, it is best to plant such varieties as Bogatyr, Northern Sinap, Renet Chernenko.
Description of apple tree March
A tree of this variety has great growth power and grows up to 7 m without molding. The main branches of the skeleton are located to the trunk at an angle of almost 90 °. The bark has a taupe. Crohn oval or pyramidal shape, rare or medium thickening. Oval-elongated leaf blades, slightly wavy, painted in dark green. They are attached to shoots on a thick petiole.
It blooms with fragrant flowers of small sizes. Apples are tied one at a time or in pairs, evenly distributed over the crown and firmly hold on to it. The variety is early and begins to give apples from 5-6 years from planting. Ripening of fruits occurs at the same time. The first crops can be harvested from the end of September.Uneven ripening of the fruits does not allow taking the entire crop at the same time, since the unripe fruits are poorly stored. Rounded apples with a slight ribbing, slightly flattened, weigh 150-200 g. The skin is dense with a wax coating and subcutaneous grayish specks. It is green with an orange uneven blush. Blush is more pronounced during storage. The fine-grained pulp has a white color with a light green. It is medium-dense and juicy, with a pleasant smell. She has a sweet and sour taste with pronounced sourness. Tasters rated it at 4.2 points.
The apple tree variety Martovskaya is considered one of the richest in P-active substances. (223 mg / 100 g), which are antioxidants. They also have a lot of vitamin C - 17.6 mg / 100 g, and sugar content - 11.7 mg / 100 g. They are good for fresh consumption and processing, including juice.
The Martovskoe apple variety can grow on cultivated seedlings or rootstocks. Due to the use of the latter, there may be different varieties of this tree. Consider the most promising.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the winter varieties of apple trees:
This form allows you to save space on the site and does not grow high. It is easier to care for and harvest. The early maturity of the tree increases, and apples can be harvested already for 2-3 years from planting. Productivity and fruiting time of a tree will decrease in comparison with taller options. The distance between the bonsai in the garden is 3 m.
This option is also easy to care for, faster bears fruiting and saves space, but has a slightly different shape. Such an apple tree has no lateral branches, and skeletal branches are directed vertically and are literally covered with fruits.
Did you know? On 1 acre of the garden you can grow 4 vigorous apple trees, 16 trees on dwarf rootstocks and up to 200 columnar varieties.
Colon-shaped trees are planted with aisles up to 1.5 m from each other. And often - even closer. If you take the yield of every hundred square meters of land in the garden, then this is the most productive variety. The price of such a seedling will be higher.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Gardeners may be interested in such benefits of the variety:
- high productivity;
- excellent keeping and marketability of apples (91%);
- excellent transportability;
- good winter hardiness and resistance to drought;
- presentation of the fruit;
- universality of use.
- Not without flaws:
- poor scab resistance;
- uneven ripening of fruits;
- in an adult tree, periodic fruiting may appear.
Consider the main characteristics of the apple variety Martovskoe.
Apple tree size
The apple tree of Martovskoye variety is tall. An adult tree can reach a length of 6-7 m. The crown of the tree is wide, which in cross section has the shape of a pyramid or a truncated oval. If a dwarf stock was used, then the tree will not grow more than 3 m.
Variety fruiting frequency
Harvest from apple trees of the Martovskoye variety is harvested every year after the fruiting begins. The maximum number of fruits is collected from 10-year-old trees. In older specimens, cyclical fruiting may be observed.
This variety produces high yields. The average yield is almost 100 kg / ha, and with an intensive cultivation method reaches 220 kg / ha. At the age of 10 years, 1 adult tree gives at least 100 kg of fruit. The size of the apples and the yield largely depend on the care of the garden.
Did you know? In Celtic, the word "paradise" sounds "Avalon" and translates as "country of apples."
This variety is quite resistant to frost, but in areas with severe winters, freezing is possible. therefore for winter, it is advisable to mulch the soil and warm the trunk. When pruning a tree after freezing, the apple tree quickly recovers.
Diseases and Pests
Resistance to diseases is average. When grown in a dry climate, the likelihood of various diseases is lower than in areas with a rainy and cool climate. Under such conditions, scab, powdery mildew, fruit rot, cytosporosis, late blight may appear. Against such diseases, treatments with copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture well help.
An apple tree can also be affected by such a dangerous disease as black cancer. It appears in black growths on the trunk and branches of a tree, the fruits begin to rot. At the initial stage of the disease, sulfur solution treatments are used. It is also necessary to carry out the removal of affected areas.In a dry climate, the apple orchard can be invaded by pests such as hawthorn, hawthorn moths, ticks, winter moths, aphids, apple motleyworms and weevils. Chemical preparations “Karbofos”, “Phosphamide”, “Metaphos”, “Tick-borne” help well to fight these insects. Pests and diseases can significantly reduce the yield of apples, so it is important to take preventive measures to prevent the appearance of diseases and pests.
The sapling of the Martovskoe apple should be planted correctly, taking into account all the nuances.
Did you know? There are 36 species of apple trees. The most popular apple tree is home. It is grown in almost all countries of the world.
Planting of seedlings is carried out in the spring (from March to April) or in the fall (from September to October). In the spring, they plant when the earth has warmed enough, but the buds on the fruit trees have not yet blossomed. In autumn, planting is carried out until the temperature drops below 0 ° C. A pit for planting is prepared after harvesting, but not less than 14 days before planting a seedling.
The area for planting apple trees is chosen well-lit by the sun and sheltered from the wind, especially the north. It should be noted that apple trees prefer light sandy loamy and loamy soils with sufficient fertility. Groundwater should not be closer to ground level than 2–2.5 m. Be sure to worry about the availability of rows of pollinating varieties.
Important! Apple trees do not like soil with high acidity. Such soil before planting must necessarily be made in advance.
The recommended planting scheme for seedlings is 4 × 6 m. Apple trees on a dwarf rootstock are planted at a distance of 2-3 m from each other, and columnar-like - with rows between 1–1.5 and a distance between trees of at least 0.4 m.Get seedlings from trusted manufacturers in specialized nurseries.Planting seedlings occurs in the following order:
- A pit is prepared from autumn or 2-3 weeks before planting a seedling. It is dug into a depth of 0.7–0.8 m, and 0.8–1 m wide. If the seedling has a dwarf stock, then the size of the pit is 10 cm less, and even less for a column-shaped one.
- Then prepare the nutrient soil. To do this, mix the upper soil with humus, compost and mineral fertilizers. Under 1 seedling, it is recommended to take: rotted manure 25 l, superphosphate 1.5 kg, ash 0.8 kg.
- A metal peg is driven into the center of the pit to fix the tree.
- After they make a small embankment in the pit from the prepared nutrient soil.
- A seedling is placed in the pit, gently spreading the roots, and covered with soil to the root neck.
- Ample watering is carried out, and when the earth settles, filling the voids, moisturize once more.
Video: instructions for planting an apple tree
After planting a seedling in the ground, he needs to ensure proper care. The agricultural technique of growing this variety is no different from caring for other apple trees. First of all, it is necessary to carry out watering as necessary. Seedlings are watered every 2 weeks. Adult trees moisturize three times per season:
- during flowering;
- during the appearance of the fruit;
- in October to prepare for wintering.
2–4 buckets are enough for watering young trees, and 7–9 buckets for older ones. After watering, soil loosening around the tree trunk should be carried out simultaneously with the removal of weed grass. This will improve the flow of water, nutrients and air to the root system.
To get a good harvest you need to feed. For their use, organics and mineral fertilizers are used. In the spring, when new leaves appear, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are used. In the summer, and also in the fall, before the onset of cold weather, potassium and phosphorus are used to fertilize the soil around the trees.
Video: feeding apple trees
It is also necessary to prune apple trees. This process is carried out at a steady temperature above 0 ° C in early spring before buds open, and also in the fall before the onset of the cold period. Remove should be short, growing to the crown, dry, as well as diseased branches.
The formation of the crown is carried out in the spring, and in the autumn they carry out sanitary pruning after the leaves fall. In order to form a crown, seedlings of 2 years of age cut the main stem at a height above 0.7 m, which causes the growth of lateral branches and roots. Places of cuts are treated with copper sulfate and garden var.To obtain a good harvest, preventive measures should be taken to prevent the appearance of diseases and pests:
- in autumn, the remains of vegetation under the trees and fallen leaves must be removed and disposed of;
- digging around the trunk, especially in the fall;
- clean the scavenger under mature trees;
- remove diseased branches;
- carry out preventive spraying with copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid;
- carry out whitewashing in spring and autumn with a liming solution of the trunk and skeletal branches;
- inspect the garden to identify pests and diseases in order to take timely control measures to eliminate the problem.
Did you know? There aren’t as many vitamins in apples as there are in some other fruits and apples, but they are rich in antioxidants. Regular consumption of apples reduces the risk of cancer, especially cancer of the intestines, lungs, prostate.
Harvesting and storage
Apples of this variety are not prone to falling off and hold tight to branches. Harvest should be harvested from late September to early October. Fruits ripen unevenly. Picked apples are sorted out, selecting copies unsuitable for storage (rotten, mechanically damaged). The selected fruits are placed in wooden crates for further transportation and storage.The apple variety got its name due to the fact that it is perfectly stored until March, without losing its merits and marketability. The optimum temperature regime for storage is +3 ... + 5 ° C, humidity 85–90%. Fruits during the storage period do not lose their taste in March. Fruits can be consumed not only in fresh form, they are great for processing. From them you can make drying, compote, jam, jam, and especially juice.
Important! Martovskoe apples that are not fully ripened will not be well preserved - they quickly lose their elasticity and quality characteristics. Therefore, the collection must be carried out as apples ripen.
The Martovskoe apple tree produces high yields, and its fruits can be stored all winter. This tall tree will take up much less space if you buy a seedling on a dwarf rootstock or a column-shaped version. The tree is resistant to frost and drought, but unstable to disease.