What varieties of apple trees are best planted in the Urals?
Glucose, carotene, fructose, an abundance of vitamin C are far from a complete list of the beneficial substances found in apples. Flowering apple trees - a sign of heat. The apple orchard is an inexhaustible source for bees to collect nectar. The tree perfectly takes root on any soil, in the most severe climate it is able to produce crops. The border of Asia and Europe - the Ural Mountains - is no exception.
Varieties of apple trees for the Urals
The plains of the Urals lie all the way from the Arctic Ocean to the top of the Ural River in Kazakhstan. The climate of the territory allows the cultivation of zoned apple varieties with consistently high yields. Breeders have bred varieties that adapt well in the climatic conditions of the Ural plains.
Did you know? The birthplace of apples is Kazakhstan. Almaty in translation means "Father of apples."
The apple tree was brought out by breeder Leonid Kotov for the Ural plains and Siberia; it was added to the State Register in 2002.
The main characteristics of the variety:
- late autumn, ripens from the beginning of September;
- medium-sized tree has a spreading crown in the form of a wide pyramid;
- branches of brown color, shoots - brown, are located at an angle of 60 ° to the trunk;
- leaves are rounded, with notches along the edge;
- blooms profusely, flowers are white, with a pink overflow;
- the fruits are round, with little pronounced edges, the skin is deep red with a glossy tint, dense. The pulp is white, granular. Fruit mass - 100-120 g. The taste is sour-sweet, with the presence of a fragrant anise note, sugar content - 13.5%, ascorbic acid - 14-22%;
- begins to bear fruit from 4 years, yield from 100 to 200 kg per tree, depending on age. Anis Sverdlovsky is a long-liver, actively bears fruit at the age of 20-25 years with a small frequency;
- apples retain their appearance and quality taste for up to 6 weeks; used as raw materials for jam, jams, eat fresh;
- has high commodity rates, tolerates transportation well;
- stable frost-resistant (up to -40 ° C), quickly restored.
Important! The tree is susceptible to scab disease during the rainy season. To prevent the disease, annual crown pruning is performed, the trunk circle is kept constantly under black steam, the fallen leaves are removed in the fall, sprayed with Bordeaux liquid before flowering, the procedure is repeated every 2-3 weeks.
One of the oldest varieties, widespread throughout Eurasia.
It gives high yields even in mountainous conditions, at an altitude of 900 to 1200 m above sea level:
- tall tree with a flat, wide, rounded crown, reaching a diameter of up to 10 meters;
- powerful branches, brown, depart from the main trunk at an obtuse angle;
- the leaves are dark green, slightly flattened rounded;
- winter-hardy tree, takes root well in Ural soil, a variety adapted to low temperatures;
- fruiting, starting from 6-7 years of age, more often - with a frequency of 1 year to 40 years of age;
- productivity from 100 to 140 kg per tree;
- apples weighing 200-300 g, are found up to 500 g. Weight depends on the growing environment and care, seasonal weather. The shape is a truncated cone. The skin is of medium thickness painted in red-green-yellow tones. White flesh with fine grain, greenish tint, has a delicate aroma, rich sweet and sour apple taste, aftertaste - with a touch of wine;
- Aport - winter apples. Harvested in late September. The fruits retain a fresh taste and presentation for up to 6 months when stored in a cold place. Jam, jams from Aport are golden in color, dried fruits do not acquire a brown hue.
The variety was obtained by pollination by the Arcade of the Winter by A.P. Biryukov, a breeder of the Ural Zone Experimental Station.Created in the conditions of the Ural climatic zone, apple trees can endure severe winter cold without losing the ability to bear fruit.
- tree height reaches 4 meters;
- sprawling crown of round shape;
- strong branches, round section. The color is brown, with a gray-green tint;
- the leaves are green, rounded, narrowed at the tips;
- blooms in the third decade of May, apples are harvested from late August to early September;
- fruits are green, round, slightly elongated to the tip. They are distinguished by a delicate aroma, sweet with a slight acid taste. Weight - 80-110 g;
- shelf life - 6-7 weeks, well tolerate transportation
Important! The negative side of the variety is poor resistance to fungal infections. It requires additional preventive care throughout the summer season, especially in rainy summers.
The main advantage of the variety is columnar apple trees. In a small area you can grow a beautiful garden and get a consistently high yield.
The main parameters of the apple tree Arkaim:
- a tree 2 meters high with a small dense crown;
- brown bark with a green coating;
- leaves are elliptical, elongated, green with a rough surface;
- winter-hardy variety, tolerates frosts up to -40 ° C without damage;
- the first fruits ripen in the second season after planting. By the age of eight brings a yield of up to 90 kg;
- apples are attracted with a “beetroot” color with yellowish-green flesh, weighing 180 g. The taste of sweetness is highlighted by spicy sourness, the aftertaste is spiced. The fruits of summer ripening retain good presentation for several months;
- suitable for industrial cultivation, due to the high productivity and the ability to rationally use small areas of soil, subject to proper agricultural practices;
- requires timely watering, fertilizing twice a year: in the spring - nitrogen, in the fall - phosphate-potash. During the growing season, they are fed with micronutrient solutions.
Variety adapted to the northern regions. Differs in unpretentiousness in leaving, stable fruiting, high yields. It tolerates “dry” frosts in snowless winters and quickly recovers in spring.
- medium-sized tree, as the crown grows older, takes the form of a spreading pyramid. The trees are distinguished by a white fluff covering the young growth;
- leaves are ellipsoid, saturated green, with elegant veins;
- blooms in large fragrant flowers, white and pink, starting in mid-May. The variety Bashkir beauty is self-fertile, requires pollination. Apple trees are suitable as pollinators: Antonovka and Titovka's seedling;
- Ural beauty begins to bear fruit for 4-6 years. Productivity - up to 150 kg per tree, apple weight - 140 g. Harvested at the end of August - September, depending on the region and climatic conditions;
- apples are green in color with reddish blotches, with time of storage they acquire a whitish hue with a pronounced blush. The skin is glossy, covered with a wax coating. The fine-grained white pulp of apples has a sweet taste with a slightly noticeable acidity and a mild aroma;
- in a cool room with good ventilation, fruits retain marketable qualities for up to six months, have a universal purpose: jam, jams, dried fruits, compotes
A tall, seven-eight-meter tree, with a spreading pyramidal crown and small leaves curved along the central vein ─ this is the Horist apple tree.
Bred by Sverdlovsk breeders for the middle Urals and Siberian regions, the frost-resistant variety is distinguished by quality indicators:
- bears fruit annually from 4 years of age, there is no frequency;
- productivity ─ up to 0.1 tons per hectare;
- the mass of apples is 90-120 g, ellipsoidal, the skin is dark red. It has a sweet taste with sourness.Granular, dense, juicy pulp with the presence of a traditional fragrance;
- Advantage of the Bugle over known varieties ─ stable scab resistance;
- Bugler ─ early ripe apples, harvested in the second decade of August. Without loss of commercial qualities, they are stored for up to 5 weeks, used for jams, compotes, preserves, and used fresh.
The summer apple variety, bred for the Siberian region, tolerates severe winters, is quickly restored. It does not require special care for seedlings; fruiting begins at 4-5 years.
The main characteristics of the variety:
- the apple tree is medium-sized, up to 3.5-4 m. Strong branches of brown color with a slight edge form a round crown. The leaves are grayish-green, the surface is slightly rough, pubescent from below;
- stable productivity for 35-40 years varies from 10 kg in the "young" age to 40-50 kg in an adult tree;
- medium-sized apples, weight 30-50 g, round, taper to a cone. The main skin is a bright red color. Harvested at the end of summer.
- in rainy summer, fruits may crack due to moisture. The high juiciness of the Gorno-Altai has gained popularity among manufacturers of natural drinks.
Important! The main component of producing an abundant crop on an industrial scale is fertile soil. The Gorno-Altai apple tree does not tolerate acidic soils; before planting, the ground is necessarily fertilized with nitrate.
Bred at the Sverdlovsk station, the frost-resistant variety (up to -40 ° C) is not inferior to the southern relatives by the commercial qualities:
- a tall tree with strong branches, dense foliage and a wide crown with a pyramidal contour, when harvesting requires additional efforts and adaptations: stairs, stepladders that dwarf species do not require;
- Ural pink like sunlight. A plot for growing a good crop is chosen not shaded, on the leeward side, it is better with a slight slope to avoid stagnation of rainwater, leading to rotting of the roots;
- early ripening ─ hallmark of Ural pink. Fruits weighing 120 g with a dense skin of a pink hue, retain a fresh presentation for a month, well tolerate transportation;
- sweet crisp flesh retains taste during heat treatment. The variety is used in cooking, confectionery, preparation of drinks, natural juice.
The old varieties Borovinka and Wagner became the parents of Zhigulevsky, passing him the sweetest notes in taste and the ability to endure the vagaries of weather in the summer. The apple tree tolerates severe frosts in winter, so it is recommended to plant a tree on a winter-hardy stock; young trees are wrapped.
Technical indicators Zhigulevsky:
- autumn grade. Maturing dates vary depending on the area of growth;
- tall trees require seasonal pruning to simplify harvesting. Strong skeletal branches form a rounded crown. Light green leaves bloom early, late frosts can damage the buds and flowers;
- self-infertile variety requires the location of nearby pollinators. The maximum yield gives the “neighborhood” with Kuibyshevsky, Antonovka, Anis gray;
- apples are round, weighing up to 200 g. A red bright blush covers almost the entire surface of the fruit. Differ in fragrant coarse-grained pulp with bright aroma.
Important! Low calorie content due to the high water content (up to 90%) implies the use of Zhiguli apples in the diet menu.
In the second half of the last century, scientists from the Sverdlovsk Institute developed the Krasa Sverdlovsk variety - winter-hardy, self-fertile. Genetically-zoned tree tolerates high frosts well, the variety is widely cultivated in Siberia, the Volga region, in the south of the Urals.
- the tree grows in height by 5-6 m, a round crown forms with age. Branches grow at a wide angle to the main trunk;
- blooms in the second decade of May, the flower is white-pink, large, fragrant;
- the productivity of Krasny Sverdlovsk is stable over the entire mature age of the tree, up to 100 kg of apples are harvested from the tree, in industrial production - up to 2 tons per hectare;
- sweet and sour dessert apples, round in shape with dense chopping flesh are leading the market. Fruits with a high content of vitamin C are suitable for preservation, culinary products, baking, eating fresh.
Summer apple tree with marketable taste characteristics and a powerful thick trunk has gained popularity among gardeners-lovers of the Urals, starting from the 50s of the twentieth century.
- brownish-brown bark, strong branches. Melba grafts well on a dwarf stock. Young trees are similar to columnar ones, they grow of average height ─ 4 m;
- yields a crop 3-4 years after planting, yield ─ up to 30 kg, after 12 years - periodic. Fruiting can be adjusted using dressing, removing 10-15% of the ovary;
- a light greenish skin tone in a few days acquires a white color with a bright blush of red color and clearly visible stripes, subcutaneous dots;
- storage periods of the harvest - from September to March, it allows the industrial cultivation and sale of apples for the purpose of eating fresh and making compotes, fruit drinks, and baking;
Important! Average resistance to frost, weak immunity to fungi, powdery mildew requires additional preventive spraying and mandatory cleaning of litter (leaves and fruits) in the fall.
A semi-dwarf tree, with early autumn ripening, giving abundant crops in the climate of Mordovia and the middle Volga region ─ Narodnoe variety, bred at the Michurinsky Institute in the middle of the last century, which is distinguished by the ability to get the first crop from a two-year-old tree, frost resistance, and immunity to fungal diseases.
- slightly spreading crown with thick skeletal branches of brown color with a gray coating, shoots are brown, pubescent. The medium-sized light green leaves are elongated, slightly curved, the lower side is lighter, veins are pronounced;
- external indicators of apples are similar to Papirova, the weight of the average fruit is ─ 120-135 g. The peel during harvest is green, during storage it acquires a yellow color. The spherical shape without pronounced ribs, the presence of subcutaneous dots, the golden hue of the fruit and the dessert spicy sweet-sour taste are in great demand among consumers and wholesalers;
- long shelf life (up to 4.5 months) makes the variety attractive for industrial cultivation and production of juices, preserves, preserves.
Did you know? The oldest fruiting apple tree planted in Manhattan by Peter Stuvesant in 1647.
When is it best to plant apple trees in the Urals?
The cold climate of the Ural region dictates features when planting an apple orchard.
Seedlings are planted in the ground in spring and autumn:
- spring time - at the end of April, when the soil has warmed up enough and contains the required amount of moisture, there is no likelihood of return frosts;
- early October ─ The best time for an autumn landing. The tree will have time to adapt to climatic conditions before the onset of stable frosts.
Features of planting and caring for the apple tree
The harsh winters of the region require a careful approach to the planting site, soil composition, and preventive measures against diseases and pests.
Choosing the right place
The presence of groundwater is a parameter that determines the height of trees:
- depths of up to 7 meters allow planting of tall varieties: Zhigulevskoye, Uralsky pink and others;
- occurrence at a distance of 2-3 m from the surface of soil water ─ low-growing varieties: Melba, Narodnoye, Krasa Sverdlovsk.
Soil fertility is another important indicator.
It is more difficult to get a high crop on acidic soils, so before planting you need to deoxidize the soil with nitrate, fertilize with peat, compost, manure.
The row spacing depends on the crown size of the selected trees:
- sprawling trees ─ Ural pink, Gornist, Zhigulevskoy planted, retreating between seedlings 3-4 m, row spacing ─ 5-6 m wide;
- saplings, columnar varieties are arranged in a row through 4.5-5 m, keeping 5 m between rows;
- for dwarf species there are enough apple trees in a row of a distance of 2.5-3 m, aisles ─ 4 m.
Watering and feeding
The drip, subsoil, superficial type of watering is equally suitable for both a new and mature apple orchard.
The amount of water depends on the age of the tree:
- one-year-old plant ─ 20-30 liters per 1 m² of a pericarpus;
- 2 years ─ 40-50 liters;
- 3-5 years ─ 50-80 liters of water;
- older than 10 years, fruiting apple trees ─ before absorbing moisture to a depth of 0.8 m.
After planting apple trees in a permanent place, spring and autumn dressing is performed, starting from the age of two. In the spring, nitrogen-containing products are introduced; in the fall, phosphate, potash.
Annual crown pruning is a prophylactic. Cutting off damaged, broken branches, thinning out the crown volume of a plant - thereby improving the access of air and sunlight to all branches evenly, reducing or completely eliminating infection with fungal diseases.
Thinning branches, simplify access for harvesting, strengthen the frame and enable the fruits to "gain full strength."
Before the onset of a harsh winter, to obtain a future stable crop you need:
- Trim the tree, reducing the chance of freezing young shoots. Slices are treated with garden varnish, oil paint, tar.
- Remove fallen leaves, small branches in order to prevent infection with parasites, the occurrence of fungal infections.
- To produce sanitary whitewashing of the bark with copper sulfate, lime.
- Wrap trees 1-3 years of age using tow, straw, wrapping burlap, after which the protective layer is fixed with twine.
Tips from experienced gardeners
Amateur gardeners willingly share their observations, experience and tricks in growing apple trees in the conditions of strong winter cold in the Urals:
- If the crown of a tree is sprayed with a solution of nutrients at the stage of fruit ovary, the yield increases by 10-20%.
- Fallen fruits must be picked. This will help prevent the spread of the codling moth.
- In the first year after planting, it is necessary to remove all inflorescences: the plant will gain full strength, it will be better to develop and bear fruit in the future.
- In autumn, to attract birds that destroy pests, hang feeders on the trees.
- The apple tree independently discards the extra ovary. If the process is not sufficiently pronounced, it is recommended to break off manually. This will improve the quality of the crop.
- When planting a seedling, position the root neck 5-6 cm higher than the soil plane, which will improve the development of the tree and accelerate the fruiting period