Variety of apples Black Prince: description, benefits and growing a tree on the site
There is a huge variety of varieties of apples, the characteristics of which are able to satisfy even the most demanding gardeners. However, how can one not get confused in such a variety and choose a really worthy variety. Black Prince apples belong to new promising varieties, whose advantages have been repeatedly noted by many summer residents.
Creation of the Black Prince variety
The Black Prince is a direct descendant of the world-famous Jonagold variety, which was bred by an American group of breeders in the middle of the twentieth century. Paying tribute to the high characteristics of the new variety, gardeners from all over Europe began to actively plant Jonagold apple trees in their plots. Such widespread popularity led to the emergence of a large number of clones (only about 100 different sub-varieties).
Check out such apple varieties as fall:
The Black Prince apples are among the most successful attempts and were originally called red prince or Wiltons Red Johnprinz. Today, this variety is widespread in Europe, Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, however, having low winter hardiness, which is explained by the producer country (Belgium), the southern regions, as well as the middle-zone regions in Russia, will be the best places to grow the Black Prince.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Black Prince apples belong to mid-early autumn varieties, the maturity of which occurs in the second half of September, however, depending on climatic and weather conditions, these dates may shift somewhat. The variety is early-growing - already in the third year after planting, such apple trees are guaranteed to give a regular and plentiful harvest.
Fruit trees of this variety have a high trunk and branched crown of irregular shape, which often leads to fruit overload. The growth rate of the tree is especially high at a young age, before the fruiting begins, after which the development process practically stops. The average height of the apple tree is about 5 m.
The fruits of the Black Prince have standard average sizes, their weight is about 200 g. Apples are round-conical in shape, crimson in color, turning almost black on the sunny side of the tree. The pulp is juicy and soft, endowed with a delicate aroma, sweet in taste, with a slight sourness of aftertaste. The peel is thin, smooth and shiny. In general, the palatability of apples is rated quite high - 4.8 points out of 5.
The timing of flowering and ripening apples
The flowering process of Red Johnprinz variety begins in mid-spring, when the air temperature warms up to +13 ... + 15 ° С. Inflorescences are medium in size and white-pink in color. Harvest can begin to be taken at the end of September, but experienced gardeners warn: if you rush to start harvesting, the taste of the fruit will decrease significantly. The Black Prince is distinguished by the triple set of chromosomes that he received from his direct parent.
Important! The number of ovaries formed is recommended to be regulated, because if too many are formed, the taste will significantly deteriorate and the size of the apples will decrease.
The consequence of this feature is a stable and rich crop, saturated with a large number of useful and nutrients. The Black Prince is not a self-pollinated variety, and therefore needs the neighborhood of other apple trees. The best varieties are Brabern or Elstar, which should be planted at a distance exceeding 50 m.It should be understood that one of the main factors affecting the future crop is the quality of selected pollinators.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Black Prince variety
- Apples of this variety are endowed with many advantages, the main of which are:
- stable and regular harvest;
- high palatability and external indicators;
- long storability.
Among the main disadvantages, there is a low level of frost resistance and some difficulties with the choice of pollinators.
Preparing for planting and further care for the tree
The processes of preparing seedlings for planting and further adhering to the basic rules for caring for apple trees are one of the main requirements for the proper growth and development of the tree, and, as a result, a rich harvest.
Basic soil requirements
The choice of the place and soil in which the future tree will grow should be taken with all responsibility - this is the factor that will be key in achieving high yield indicators. The best option for land is fertile soil, since the fruits of an apple tree that grows in a depleted land, even with constant feeding, will have significantly worse quality.
Did you know? Statistics say that every second tree found in the world is an apple tree.
The loamy soil, which passes air and moisture well, will become the optimal soil substrate. Also, it is worth paying attention to the place in which the young tree will grow - the site should be sufficiently illuminated, and the groundwater should be deep enough (at least 2.5 m) so that the developed root system cannot reach the water.
The right quality of seedlings
Starting to choose planting material, you should be guided by the basic rules:
- One or two year old seedlings will be the best choice. To determine the age, it is necessary to pay attention to the number of branches: one-year-olds do not have developed additional branches, and two-year-olds have no more than four.
- The rhizome of seedlings should be moist and elastic, with the absence of brittleness and signs of rot. As well as the aboveground part, in which there should be no growths or damage.
- There should be no deciduous cover on the seedling.
Rules and landing pattern
When planting several apple trees at the same time, you should immediately correctly calculate the distance between them, since neglecting the distance can result in the following consequences:
- volume and quality of the crop will decrease;
- fruit trees will experience an acute shortage of nutrients and sunlight;
- immunity will decrease and there will be a risk of the appearance of fungal diseases;
- such conditions can provoke the rapid multiplication of various pests.
Did you know? Due to the fact that a quarter of the total mass of the apple is air, this fruit does not sink in water.
The process of planting seedlings consists of several main stages:
- A few months before the proposed planting, the preparation of the hole for the seedling is carried out - this gives the earth time to sag well and evenly moisten.The size of the planting pit varies depending on the type of planting material: tall trees require 70 cm in depth and 120 cm in width, medium-sized trees - 50 × 100 cm, and for dwarf trees, 40 cm in depth and 90 in width are sufficient.
- Digging a hole, it is necessary to divide the soil into two parts: the first layer is upper and it is more fertile, the second - lower.
- A small stake is hammered into the hole (height up to 1.5 m), and then it is filled up with the first layer of soil mixed with fertilizer (humus and compost are used) until a low mound is formed.
- The rhizome of the seedling is carefully spread and covered with soil mixed with fertilizer, while it is necessary to ensure that the root neck protrudes 4-5 cm above the ground.
- The soil around is compacted, and the seedling itself is firmly attached to the peg.
- A shallow hole (diameter of about 1.2 m) is dug around the planted seedling, into which several buckets of water (20 l) pour.
- After the soil completely absorbs moisture, the soil is mulched using humus and foliage - this procedure will prevent the drying of the earth in the future.
Watering, fertilizing and loosening the soil
There are several ways to irrigate apple trees:
After watering, in order to avoid the formation of crust on the ground, it is recommended to carry out loosening, which will additionally saturate the root system of the tree with oxygen and nutrients.
Important! Inadequate watering leads to chopping of the fruit and loss of taste characteristics of the variety.
Throughout the year, except for the winter period, when the plants are at rest, apple trees require fertilizer, depending on their needs:
- at the end of May, during the blossoming of inflorescences, the trees are fed with urea, at the rate of 1/2 tbsp. spoons of fertilizer per 1 m of the trunk circle;
- at the beginning of summer it is necessary to introduce microelements necessary for the development into the soil, namely 0.5 g of boric acid and 2 g of copper sulfate are dissolved in 10 l of water;
- at the end of summer the earth is fertilized with superphosphates and calcium chloride (20-30 g per 1 m);
- in early fall the trunk circle is covered with manure or compost.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The pruning procedure is an integral part of apple tree care procedures and requires systematic. Pruning should be done twice a year - in the spring, to remove damaged branches and the formation of the crown and in the fall, which requires more intervention.
There are several main ways:
- Tier Sparse Formation Method - the branches are cut to form tiers. Such pruning is the most preferable and can significantly improve the quality and volume of the crop.
- Cup-shaped formation - the method is very similar to longline pruning, but is most often used for dwarf trees that have a short lifespan.
- Spindle forming method - It is considered the easiest way and includes getting rid of the insignificant volume of branches and removing the main processes by secateurs.
- The formation of vertical palmetti - most often this method is used for apple trees located along facades or fences.
- Anti-aging pruning - suitable for long-lived trees, in order to extend the fruiting period.
Video: pruning an old apple tree
Preparing a tree for frost
The condition of a tree in spring will directly depend on the correctness of the preparation of apple trees for wintering. The main thing you need to pay attention to is reliable insulation of the aerial parts and the root system of the plant.
This procedure consists of several stages:
- soil loosening;
- mulching the soil of the near-trunk circle, using peat, manure or sawdust, which will protect the rhizome from freezing;
- young trees require insulation of the base with the construction of a small mound (about 40 cm in height);
- after the snow falls, it is raked to the area of the trunk circle.
Video: how to prepare apple trees for winter
Pests and diseases of the variety
The Black Prince variety has a stable immunity to most common diseases, and therefore, most often, disease damage occurs due to improper care procedures.
Important! Experienced gardeners recommend hanging feeders on a tree, thereby attracting birds, which will become reliable protection against attack by pests.
Here are the main reasons why not only the appearance of a tree can worsen, but also the quality and volume of the crop can significantly decrease:
- Scab - refers to the most common disease of fruit trees and affects not only the deciduous cover, but also the inflorescences of the tree and its fruits. The main reason for the manifestation of the disease is considered high humidity due to frequent rainfall, nebula or frequent watering. Scab is manifested by light green spots that cover the outside of the leaves and fruits. As treatment and prevention fungicidal preparations are used. It is also recommended to remove fallen leaves and digging the soil of the trunk circle.
- Powdery mildew - the affected tree fragments are covered with white coating, which then turn into brown spots with red blotches. Treatment and prevention is carried out during the blooming of leaves, by spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
- Cytosporosis - fungus, the appearance of which provokes frequent watering and scarce soil. The main target of the disease is weakened trees. Only the disease can be treated in the early stages, by treating the plant with a fungicide preparation and then with copper sulfate.
- Aphid - pests that parasitize on tree foliage. Sucking juices, aphids leads to curling of the affected leaf and its decline. As a treatment, trees are treated with a 3% solution of malathion every spring.
Harvesting and storage
The ripening period of apples is the end of September, but the fruits can remain quietly on the tree until November. At the same time, the longer the apple remains on the branch, the better palatability it has. The collection procedure can be carried out in one step. Fruit taken ahead of time will have low shelf life and portability. At the same time, the crop harvested in November can be stored even at room temperature for more than 3 months. And in the conditions of a refrigerator or special storage, this period increases to 6 and 9 months, respectively.
As an optimal container for storage, wooden or plastic boxes are used. Apples are pre-sorted by size and stacked in layers, which are covered with dry sawdust or small chips, moss, oak or maple leaves. Before laying, the prepared container is washed with a solution of bleach, then dried and covered with paper. To extend the shelf life, each apple is wrapped in parchment or oiled paper.The Black Prince is undoubtedly the leader among many different varieties of apples. Due to its high taste and positive characteristics, this variety has gained well-deserved popularity among the owners of suburban areas. Adhering to the simple rules of nursing procedures, you can easily get a high-quality and rich harvest that can surprise even experienced gardeners.