Features of growing and caring for Taurida pear variety
Pear trees are among the top ten fruit crops grown everywhere in Russian gardens. The popularity of a pear is due to the wonderful taste of its fruits and the simplicity of cultivation. This article is devoted to the Taurida pear variety, a description of the variety and its characteristics will be given here, the procedure for planting a pear seedling and the further care of an adult tree will be described in detail.
Botanical characteristics and description
The Taurida pear variety belongs to plants with a late autumn harvest. Often this variety is called a winter pear. It has excellent frost resistance and can withstand sub-zero temperatures up to -30 ° C. Tauride also has good resistance to prolonged drought. The tree of this variety is not too tall, the height of the trunk rarely exceeds 3 m. The crown of the tree has a pyramidal shape, its branches are located at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the trunk and are directed vertically.
Did you know? Like apples, when cutting pears change their color, turn brown. This is due to the fact that the iron contained in the fruit, in contact with air, turns into iron oxide. To preserve the natural color of the fruit when sliced, it is recommended to rinse the sliced pears in water with a few drops of lemon juice.
Tauride has a good foliage. The leaves are green, rounded, smooth, glossy. The tree is self-fertile and does not need too much pollinating neighbors. But if a gardener wants to receive abundant annual crops of Tauride pear, he should plant suitable pollinating varieties in the garden. The variety is compatible with quince, so it is often grafted onto the wild game of this culture.
Taurida pear belongs to early varieties. After vaccination on quince, a young pear begins to bear fruit in the fourth year of vegetation; when growing a seedling from a seed, fruiting occurs in the third year. Pear flowering is plentiful, begins in late April or in the first May decade. The pear blossoms with large white flowers that emit an intense sweet aroma during flowering, which attracts bees to the flowers. After a week, flowering ends, flower petals fly around, and pear ovary begins to form in their place.Fruits are eaten fresh fresh or made from them: they make jam, compotes or cook dried fruitsThe fruits of Tauride have the classic shape of a pear in the form of a wide cone and a tuberous surface. The skin of the fetus is dense, even stiff. The pear is painted in bright yellow color with a pink blush on one side. The pulp has no granularity, smooth and satin. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, harmonious, very tasty. Pears are medium and large in size, their weight can range from 200 to 600 g. The fruit ripens in late September or early October, the harvest time varies depending on the weather. The load of the tree with fruits is very high, with age, the yield only increases. The pear will produce good crops for 30 years.
Did you know? For gardeners around the world, the Day of Amateur Gardening was invented, the celebration of which is reserved for the first May Saturday. The purpose of this holiday is to become a symbol of harmonious unity of man with the plant world.
The first harvest of Taurida pears will consist of 2-3 fruits. Crop will gradually increase: from the fifth to the tenth year of cultivation, the tree will bear up to 30 kg of fruit, in the future, an adult tree can form up to 90 kg of fruit per season. Tauride fruits well tolerate long-distance transportation, without losing sight and taste.The variety is resistant to shedding from branches. The root system of the pear is rather poorly developed, so the first few years of vegetation may seem that the seedling does not grow at all. This is not so, because after the tree adapts to a new place, the root system will begin to grow, and the plant will begin to gain above-ground mass.After ripening, the fruits hold well on the branches, do not crumble
Benefits and Possible Cons of the Variety
- Grade Advantages:
- large fruits;
- great taste;
- resistance to drought;
- the ability of the fruits for long-term storage;
- resistance to low temperatures;
- low susceptibility to certain diseases (scab and bacterial burn).
- a tendency to moniliosis;
- the need to shelter the crop from wasps damaging it.
We recommend you to get acquainted with winter varieties of pears:
Preparation and direct landing
As preparatory work before planting, they dig a landing pit and fertilize the soil. It is optimal to refuel the planting pit with fertilizers long before the tree planting procedure itself, best of all in 2-3 months. During the time elapsed from the preparation of the planting pit to the direct planting of seedlings in the soil, fertilizers applied to the soil will have time to decompose well, and the soil will become loose.Experienced gardeners recommend preparing a planting pit from autumn for spring planting and vice versa: in spring for autumn planting of seedlings
Optimal time for landing
Pear seedlings can be planted in spring and autumn, but experienced gardeners prefer the autumn period for planting trees. Russian autumn is usually long and warm, rich in moisture. These are optimal conditions for the favorable adaptation of the transplanted tree. Autumn tree planting is carried out from the second half of October until the soil freezes. In the spring, seedlings of autumn planting quickly begin to grow. Spring planting of seedlings begins about 7-10 days after the snow melts in the garden, and the soil dries out a little. Usually this period falls on the first decade of April.
How to choose a quality planting material
It is most reliable to buy seedlings of Taurida pears not in the market, but in a fruit nursery with a good reputation. This is important because seedlings in the market can be sick or are carriers of viral and bacterial diseases.
What you need to pay attention to when buying:
- The seedling should have a branched root system, having several roots with a diameter of more than 2 cm and many small, fibrous roots.
- It should be possible to wrap thin roots around the finger without breaking - this is an indicator of their elasticity and saturation with moisture.
- On the roots should not be black, dried, dead areas or mold.
- When the root is cracked, the wood inside should be white or greenish-pink; all other wood colors indicate that not everything is in order with the seedling. A small root break will help to verify the juiciness of the root wood.
- The seedling trunk should not be too thin, it is desirable that its diameter be at least 3-4 cm. The bark in the upper part of the seedling (at the top) is damaged and the sapwood is carefully examined (cambium layer under the bark). If it is juicy and vibrant, then everything is in order.
- The seedling trunk is also examined for mechanical damage or signs of ill health, such as mold or fungi.
The best place to land
When choosing a place for planting a pear, you must be careful not to plant a tree in the so-called "cold pocket". This is the place where the cold air stagnates. It is also undesirable to plant a pear in a place that is characterized by drafts, or subject to the influence of cold northerly winds. The most optimal for planting will be a sunny place protected by a fence or the wall of the building with fertile, loose soil.
Did you know? Extravagant English gardeners smashed the "Poison Garden", in which several hundred plants deadly poisonous to humans grow. The garden is open to visitors, but they are forbidden to touch any of the plants, and it is also not allowed to inhale their smell or taste.
In order for the tree to develop correctly and bear fruit well in the future, the seedling must be planted correctly. Landing algorithm:
- Landing pit. They dig a recess in the soil with a width of at least 60 cm and a depth of 50 cm. The main criterion for the planting pit to be suitable for the parameters is the free location of the root system in it. A couple of shovels of fertile soil from the upper soil layer are laid at the bottom of the landing pit, half a bucket of humus or compost and 100 g of potassium and superphosphate are added there. Everything is thoroughly mixed and a hill up to 20 cm high is formed at the bottom of the landing pit.
- Root preparation. The root system of a seedling is carefully examined and dry and split roots are removed. Thick roots are trimmed by one third. The fibrous thin roots are slightly cut. After trimming, the root system of the seedling is dipped in a liquid (thick sour cream) solution of clay, horse manure and water. Clay talker will retain moisture in the roots for a long time.
- Planting a seedling. The tree is set in the center of the hill, located at the bottom of the landing pit. The roots are spread on the sides of the hill, after which they begin to fill them with soil. A long stick is installed next to the seedling, which will later serve as a supporting peg. When the roots are covered with a layer of soil with a thickness of 15 cm, the seedling is shaken at the top. This is done so that the soil evenly and densely covers the roots of the pear. When the landing pit is filled with soil, a recess for irrigation is formed around the trunk circle. The soil around the planted tree is compacted, evenly trampling the soil in the tree circle.
- Watering a seedling. 10-15 liters of water are poured under the root of the tree, wait until all the moisture is absorbed into the soil, and they add the pit formed after sinking the soil. Next, the seedling is watered weekly for a month, and for the second month, the frequency of watering is reduced to 2 times a month.
- Seedling Garter. The tree is tied together with a support peg. To connect them, use any soft, but durable material. Suitable for garter leather, soft natural ropes, polyethylene twine. A garter will prevent the tree from breaking under the pressure of strong winds. 3 years after planting, the support peg can be removed.
Features of further tree care
After the tree has been properly planted in the soil, it needs to provide regular care, which consists in irrigating the root system, pruning branches, feeding and protecting against insect pests and diseases.
Important! When planting, the gardener must ensure that the vaccination site on the pear is not covered with soil. The root neck should be raised above the ground by 5–6 cm
Watering and regular top dressing
An adult pear does not particularly need watering, it resists well to long periods of drought. An adult tree is watered in such developmental phases as flowering and fruit setting; during these periods, at least 20-30 liters of water are poured under an adult pear at a time. Irrigation is necessary for young, recently planted trees. The first 4 weeks after planting, it is carried out weekly, in an amount of 10 liters under the root. Starting from the second month after planting, watered every 2 weeks, using the same amount of water. This schedule of watering the seedling is used until the fall. Next, a young tree is watered no more than once a month, using a bucket of water at a time when watering.If the summer is rainy, watering can be omitted. To prevent decay of the root system, if it rains too often, from the root zone to the crown zone, loosening is carried out.Before planting a fruit tree, the gardener fertilizes the planting hole, this tree lasts for 2–3 years of life. In the future, it needs to be fertilized regularly. This substance is rich in nitrogen and other beneficial minerals. Organics are added to the pear every 2 years. To fertilize the tree, manure is laid around the trunk in a diameter of 1.5 m, after which it is dug up with soil so as to completely cover the soil with organic matter.Two organic buckets are enough for one adult tree. Often fertilizer application is combined with autumn digging of the soil in the near-stem circle under the trees.The most successful fertilizer option is the introduction of cattle humus or compostEvery year in the autumn, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are applied to the soil under the trees, approximately 400 g of each substance per 10 m² of area. In the spring, under a pear, you can make mineral fertilizers, for example, ammonium sulfate based on 400 g per 10 m² of area or 200 g of urea per 10 m². If the soil in the garden is covered with growing grass, the amount of fertilizer should be increased: the dose of ammonium sulfate increases by about 80 g, the dose of urea by 40 g.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Pear tree is pruned from the first year of cultivation. Primary pruning is aimed at the correct formation of the crown and takes 3 years. The crown of the pear should be in the form of a pyramid. The correct formation of the crown of the Tauride pear:1. The beginning of the formation; 2. Formed 5-year-old tree; 3. Flat wind-visible bush
- In the first year, the seedling is cut to a height of 80 cm.
- In the second year, 4 well-developed lateral branches are left on the pear seedling, all the other branches are cut out. On the left branches, the ends are cut off by 20 cm. These will be branches of the first order.
- In the third year, 3 well-developed shoots are left on the branches of the first order - these will be the branches of the third order. The ends of the branches of the third order are truncated by 10–15 cm. The branches of the second order are cut so that the top of the seedling is 25–30 cm longer and the pyramidal shape of the crown is clearly visible in the tree.
- In the future, the formation of the crown is to maintain shape.
Did you know? American scientists have found that daily use of pears not only helps to reduce weight and enrich the body with necessary vitamins, but also contributes to a good mood, eliminates constipation and improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
An adult pear needs regular pruning, which is carried out twice a year - in spring and autumn. Spring pruning is aimed at cutting snow-broken branches and removing many shoots this year. In autumn, pruning is carried out after harvesting the fruit, it is aimed at maintaining the sanitary condition of the garden. During the autumn pruning, the gardener removes diseased and dead branches, dead wood, infected, mummified pears from the tree from the tree. At the same time, the fallen leaves from the tree are also cleaned.
Video: how to trim a pear
In a mild climate, adult pear trees do not need additional insulation in preparation for winter. If the growing region is characterized by severe frosts, the gardener should make sure that the root system of the pear does not suffer from subzero temperatures.
Important! When securing the protective material on the trunks of young fruit trees, one should not use coarse material with sharp edges for garter, for example, metal strings or thin wire. In winter, trees continue to grow, and a rigidly fixed mount will grow into the bark, thereby deforming it and causing damage.
To warm the roots in the near-stem circle, an additional layer of soil 20–25 cm thick is laid. Organic heaters, such as a mulch layer of straw, sawdust of hardwood or spruce spruce can be used. Warming of the root system in cold regions is used both for adult trees and seedlings (without fail). It is also necessary to insulate the crown of young pear seedlings, for this the branches are wrapped in several layers with spunbond or other non-woven material. You can slightly pull off the crown of the seedling with a rope and put on top a spacious plastic bag of sugar.The texture of polyethylene weaving on such bags allows the tree to breathe and moisture to evaporate, that is, it will prevent mold on the branches and will warm it in severe frosts.
Video: preparing pear seedlings for winter
The gardener should also take care of the safety of pear seedlings from cleft and mouse teeth. In winter, these rodents often visit the garden in the hope of enjoying the lush bark of young trees. To prevent damage to the cortex, gardeners wrap a tree trunk with some durable material: metal mesh, plastic or car rubber.
Important! The gardener needs to pay attention to the fact that fallen leaves from the tree infected with diseases do not fall into the compost pile to prevent the further spread of pathogenic microorganisms in the garden.
Diseases and pests of the variety
In the warm season, pear trees are often attacked by pests. Heat and moisture are also the optimal environment for the propagation of fungal ailments. The most common pear diseases:
- Scab. The disease is caused by fungal spores, on the infected tree leaves and fruits are covered with black spherical spots. As a preventive measure, early spring treatment is carried out with preparations containing copper, for example, Bordeaux mixture. Twice per season, the tree is treated with fungicides: immediately after flowering and during fruit growth.
- Moniliosis. A fungal disease affecting flowers and leaves. Due to infection, they quickly fade, dry out and fall to the ground or remain attached to the branches. On fruits due to moniliosis, rounded mold spots form in spherical circles. The development of moniliosis contributes to damp and cold weather. As a protection, preventative treatment of the pear should be carried out using Bordeaux mixture and sulfur-based preparations.
- Peronosporosis, rust and oidium. These are fungal diseases, often affecting a pear. Any of these diseases causes damage to the foliage and a weakening of the growth power of the tree. In this case, prophylactic treatments with sulfur-based preparations are recommended. The first treatment is carried out before budding. After the symptoms of infection appear, fungicides are used as a treatment, treatment is carried out twice during the summer season.
- Pear aphid - small insects that feed on juice and leaf cells. Usually the aphids are black or green in color, the body length of the insect does not exceed 2 mm. Pests inhabit young leaves and shoots, live in large colonies. They multiply rapidly; in the summer, 2-3 generations can be bred. They are brought to the tree by ants, therefore, simultaneously with the destruction of aphids, the gardener needs to take care of the destruction of nearby anthills. Against ants, sticky hunting belts fixed on the trunk and branches of a tree help well. If the pear is slightly infected with aphids, the pest can be washed off with a directed stream of water from the hose. A tree heavily infected with a pest is treated with an insecticide sprayed on the crown of a tree. Gardeners can also buy ladybug eggs in specialized stores, which are laid out in the garden in special insect houses. Ladybugs are a natural aphid predator and quickly cleanse trees from pests.
- Red spider mite - a sucking small insect, the presence of which can be seen by the appearance of a thin web on the leaves, fruits, and in the forks of a tree. The body of an adult spider mite does not exceed 1–2 mm, has a burgundy color. Young pests have a transparent body, so it is difficult to notice them with the naked eye. To treat a tree infected with a spider mite, leaf treatment with insecticides is used.
- Beeater, or pear weevil - the insect has an oval shape, a long elongated nose and a dark gray color of chitin.The result of the activity of the weevil on the pear is the fall of flowers and small ovaries. Insecticides are used to control pests. Gardeners also attract birds to the garden, which reliably clean trees from pests. To do this, in winter, bird feeders are placed in the garden, and in spring, birdhouses are installed on pears to attract birds for permanent residence.
The application to the crown, trunk and branches of the pear of any therapeutic and prophylactic solutions is carried out using a garden backpack sprayer, equipped with a long (up to 3 m) feed tube and a nozzle with fine spray. During chemical treatments of trees, the gardener must take appropriate measures to protect his own health: protect the skin from getting “chemistry" on it with overalls with long sleeves and a hood tightly fitting his head, and a respirator and glasses should also be worn.
Harvesting and storage
Tavricheskaya pears are harvested in late September or early October. Harvesting time may shift annually depending on the weather. The gardener can wait for the fruit to ripen completely on the branches or collect them not quite mature. Ripe fruits are intended for fresh consumption, as well as for the preparation of compotes, preserves, drying and other preparations for the winter.
Provided the carriage is unripe and at the appropriate temperature, the pears ripen on the road and do not deteriorate for a long time. For transportation of pears, it is necessary to use special pallets with a recess for each fruit. Pallets are installed on special legs-limiters (up to 5 cm high), which do not allow the upper pallets with fruits to crush the lower ones.Even a single pear tree of the Taurida variety can provide its owner with an abundant harvest of tasty and juicy fruits. Caring for an adult pear tree of this variety is not too complicated and is not much different from caring for the rest of the fruit trees in the garden.
This year we have the first fruiting of Tauride. The fruits are large, very productive (had to be well rationed), after still strong winds have normalized, then the codling mound - this year some kind of invasion. By the way, to Delbaray - its competitor from the codling moth suffered much less, it also keeps better on the tree from the wind. About the taste: the pulp is oily, juicy, with a slight acidity. If compared to taste with Bere Bosque, then it does not exceed it, but this is subjective by default. In addition, these are only signaling. The tree does not get sick, has not been processed at all, and hibernates perfectly. We close only the standard from hares. I will not say anything about stubbornness - everything was eaten.