The best apple varieties for Siberia, their descriptions and characteristics
The Siberian climate differs significantly from the climate of the rest of Russia, which means that when planting fruit trees in this region, it is worth choosing only frost-resistant varieties that can successfully survive harsh winters. The apple tree is one of the most popular fruit crops, so in this article we offer to learn more about suitable varietal variations of this particular tree.
Highly winter resistant varieties
Highly winter-resistant varieties of apple trees are the optimal solution for most of the Siberian territory, because such trees can withstand temperatures lower than others in any part of Siberia. The most famous varieties of this group are the apple trees of the Ranetki group and the Ural bulk grade.
Ranetki is not a separate variety, but a whole group of varieties combining apple trees with small, sour and slightly tart fruits, which are used mainly to create blanks.
In particular, these are the following varieties:
- Ranetka Ermolaeva - a summer variety whose fruits are harvested in August. The crown of a medium-sized apple tree (up to 5 m in height) resembles a pyramid, the fruits are round, red-yellow in color. 5 to 40 kg of apples are removed from 1 tree, and, unlike many other varieties of Ranetki, they are quite suitable for fresh consumption.
- Change - a variety with trees of medium height. The crown of plants resembles an oval, and ripening apples can be either flat-rounded or round-conical, weighing 21.5 g each. Pulp - compacted, with a high juice content, sweet and sour taste.
- Long (Chinese) - Autumn harvest variety, with medium-sized apple trees up to 5 m in height. The crown is wide-round, with shoots directed upwards. Apples are yellow-red, small, with a smooth cover and a small mass in 20–25 g. The flesh is both acidic and sweet, juicy enough, with a noticeable plum smell. Typically, up to 180 kg of apples can be removed from 1 medium plant. Ranetka Long is recommended to be grown in the West Siberian, East Siberian and Northwest territories of Siberia.
- Dobrynya - a variety represented by strong-growing trees up to 5 m high. The crown is rounded, the fruits are purple, ribbed, slightly flattened. Greenish flesh - compacted, moderately juicy, with small red veins and sour-tart flavor. Most often, apples are used as raw materials for various preservation and juice. Breeders recommend planting seedlings of this variety in the West Siberian and East Siberian regions.
- The common advantages of all Ranetki include the following characteristics:
- high winter hardiness;
- unpretentiousness to the conditions of cultivation and care;
- good external tree data.
At the same time, the disadvantages of this group of apples are no less noticeable, because most of them are not used fresh, and they are not impressive in size.
Important! The most suitable varieties of Ranetoks for fresh consumption are Yantarka Altai and Gift to BAM. The rest are more suitable for canning and processing for juice.
This variety belongs to the semi-cultural group of the autumn collection. These are medium-sized (up to 5 m in height) apple trees with a thick and drooping rounded crown. Yellow-green fruits - each weighing 28-30 g, with a smooth and glossy peel, under which a juicy white pulp, combining high sweetness and acid, is hidden.The fruits are picked already in September or October, and the yield per 1 average tree is about 200 kg of delicious apples, which you can use at your discretion.
Their average shelf life is 60–65 days, and the exact collection time should be chosen based on the goals of further use:
- For processing into compotes and juices, it is better to pick apples from trees - while the flesh is solid, but very juicy.You can do this a few weeks before the recommended deadline for mass collection.
- Harvesting clearly in September or October is the best choice for fresh consumption.
- For jam, jams or marmalade, you can overexpose the fruits on the trees to make them softer and easier to process.
The trees of this variety bring maximum yield when they are planted in the Kurgan, Orenburg, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions, in which the Ural bulk apples are zoned.
For most of the Siberian territory, both apple trees of highly winter-resistant varieties and trees of ordinary winter-hardy varieties are equally well suited, because in both cases the plants can easily tolerate frosty winters without reducing yield indicators.
Popular winter-hardy varieties for growing in the Urals include Rudolph, Gift of Autumn, Silver Hoof.
This variety is represented by medium-sized decorative trees growing up to 6 m in height. The crown is mainly rounded in shape, but with age it becomes more spreading, reaching a 4-meter wide. In some cases, apple trees more resemble shrubby trees, which only enhances their decorative qualities.Leaves - 3- or 5-lobed, elliptical in shape, saturated green color. Flowering is always plentiful and long, with fragrant white-pink flowers collected in small inflorescences. At the end of flowering, beautiful yellow fruits are formed on the shoots, resembling balls in shape.
Under suitable growing conditions, 1 apple tree gives up to 5 kg of small but juicy rounded apples with a astringent-astringent taste. They are not suitable for fresh consumption, but they can be used to create jams or preserves.
The best place for growing varieties in Siberian territory will be the southern regions, with relatively mild winters.
Did you know? The strangest apple record was set in 1976 by New Yorker (USA) Kathy Walfer. This woman in 11.5 hours of work was able to get a whole apple peel with a length of 52 m 51 cm.
Gift of autumn
Autumn grade of apple trees The Autumn Gift is presented by strong-growing standard trees with high winter hardiness. Crohn is rounded and quite strong, formed mainly from brown shoots of medium length. Leaves - saturated green with a moderate grayish dusting and a slight pointedness at the tip.On the edge of the sheet there is a noticeable town-like serration. Apples ripening by early fall - yellow, large (up to 140 g), rounded, but slightly flattened at the edges. Under the dense skin hides a yellowish soft flesh of sweet and sour taste (when cut through an apple, it does not lose its color for a long time and does not darken).
On average, 1 plant brings 140–150 kg of apples, and all the ripped fruits will be stored quietly for 60 days. They can be used fresh and used for processing for all kinds of preservation and juices.
The best indicators of apple yield Autumn gift noted in the western territory of Siberia, although often seedlings are planted in other areas, where they also take root well.
The appearance of apple trees of this variety can be called mediocre: the height of the plant does not exceed 4-6 m, and its crown is of standard rounded size, albeit with a large number of leaves. Skeletal branches are located at a right angle to the column, and the bark of the branches has a slightly yellowish hue.Dark green leaves are large, expanded at the base and slightly raised at the edges. Fruits are one-sized, of regular rounded shape and with a smooth surface (the present light ribbing is almost imperceptible).
The thin surface skin of the fruit is painted yellow-cream, but later it turns to orange-red and hides the points under the skin well.The soft part is fine-grained, quite juicy and hard, with large rounded seeds inside.
Taste properties of sweet and sour apples always remain at a high level, but apple flavor is weak.
Silver hoof belongs to the group of self-fertile apple trees of summer ripening (they begin to harvest apples in mid-August), and the best pollinator for it would be Anis Sverdlovsky.
For planting seedlings of this variety, practically any region of the middle strip is suitable, and as for the Siberian region, it is worth giving preference to western territories.
Apple trees of medium-resistant varieties are able to withstand temperature drops to –35 ° C, which will be appropriate when grown in the southern and some central regions of Siberia. The most popular varieties from this group are deservedly considered the apple trees Champion, Papirovka, Antonovka and Melba (Melba).
Champion - early winter variety (harvesting is carried out in mid-October). It was bred from the Golden Delicious and Renet Cox varieties. As a result, breeders managed to obtain medium-sized compact apple trees with an oval and medium-thickened crown. Skeletal branches extend from the trunk at an angle of 50–70 °, have average growth and development rates.At the end of May, pink-white flowers are formed on the shoots, collected in small inflorescences, which densely cover the branches of the tree’s crown. Without the presence of other pollinating varieties, the tree self-pollinates only 30%, and the fruits are formed on all branches.
To increase the yield of Champion apple trees, representatives of the varieties Idared, Alva, Alkmene, Florina, Piros, Priam, Spartan should be planted next to them.
The fruits of this variety are always large (160-200 g each), rounded oval in shape and have a greenish-yellow hue, but the integumentary color is often orange-red with a blurry striped blush (sometimes apples appear completely red).
The surface layer of apples is covered with yellow-gray lentils, and under it is a light cream, sweet and sour flesh with a pleasant taste. This is an ideal option for frost-resistant apples., which can be consumed fresh, especially since the yield of adult trees reaches 20–25 kg per plant.
The most suitable regions for growing this variety are considered to be the south of Siberia and some central parts, with short-term temperature drops.
Important! When grown in the central parts of the country, adult plants will not need shelter, but it is better to cover young seedlings in the first year with spruce branches or artificial insulating material.
One of the oldest winter-hardy varieties of summer ripening (harvesting is already in mid or late August). The trees are medium-tall, up to 4–5 m high. The crown of a young apple tree is wide-pyramidal in shape, but becomes more rounded with age, which adds to the decorativeness of the tree.Shoots - medium thick, brown-green color and with a strong pubescence on the surface. The bark of the main skeletal branches is light gray in color. Leaves - gray-green color, ovoid or elliptical. The surface of the leaves is covered with a slight pubescence, and in the lower part of the leaf it is more noticeable.
In spring, pink-white buds with slightly raised petals appear on the shoots. After flowering, round-conical fruits are tied with well-marked wide ribs. The color of apples Papirovka is green-yellow, and at the stage of removable maturity the peel is additionally covered with a white waxy coating, and there is no blush on the fruits.
The white flesh is friable and tender, and at the stage of full maturity it is also very juicy (when overripe apples, its texture may change). The taste is sweet and sour, the aroma is either completely absent or very weakly expressed.
At the age of 9–12 years, apple trees bring in 14–28 kg of apples, although these are not final indicators and much depends on the conditions in which the trees grow.
In Siberia, Papirovka seedlings are best not to be planted in the East Siberian region and in the territory of the extreme northern regions, and in the rest they adapt well and eventually bring a bountiful harvest.
Antonovka is another ancient apple variety that is considered a spontaneous hybrid of a flattering apple tree. In modern conditions, all trees of this variety are tall-growing trees, reaching a height of 7 m. The crown of young plants is more rounded, but in old it becomes raised and spreading, reaching a width of 7–9 m.All brown shoots are characterized by pronounced articulation, and the leaves appearing on them are slightly elongated, bright green in color with jagged edges.
During flowering, large flowers with a pink tint are formed on the branches, and a little later they are replaced by flat-rounded or oval-conical fruits with a faceted or wide-ribbed surface. The weight of 1 apple of the Antonovka variety ranges from 120–150 g, but individual specimens can reach 250–300 g.
The peel of the fruit is green or straw yellow, shiny and covered with a slight oily coating. The integumentary color is either completely absent or has a faint, pinkish tint. The yellowish flesh is medium-dense, grainy and very juicy, with a sweet and sour taste.
It is noteworthy that in its composition there is a large amount of vitamin C, which only increases the value of the variety.
The average yield of apples Antonovka is 300-400 kg of apples from 1 tree.
In 1947, this variety was included in the State Register and today recommended for cultivation in the West Siberian and South Siberian regions.
Despite the fact that this variety has much less frost resistance, it is still often planted on Siberian soil, sheltering for winter if necessary. The most suitable growing regions in this case will be the territories of Western and Eastern Siberia, although these trees are also successfully cultivated in other regions of the Russian Federation.Variety Melba is represented by medium-tall trees with a wide-round crown of medium density. The light green leaves of the plant are oval, with a faint yellow glow. Sometimes they resemble a dome, slightly bending upward. Large flowers are formed on the apple tree, and even a little larger than other similar varieties.
Melba apples are harvested in mid-August and can last 1 month. All fruits are round, slightly elongated from the poles, weighing 120–140 g. The sweet and sour, delicate and aromatic flesh is covered with a dense, light green skin, on which striped red zones appear at the stage of full ripening.
During season 1, a small tree brings about 15–20 kg of apples, but it is often possible to remove 70–100 kg of fruits from adult specimens, which, when immature, are quite suitable for long-term storage (until the middle or even the end of winter).
Did you know? The apple variety with the smallest fruits was bred in New Zealand and called Tiddly Pomme. The diameter of such apples does not exceed 5 cm, so children like them very much.
Low winter resistant
Each of these groups has its own frost resistance limit, and if it is exceeded, then one can no longer hope for a plentiful harvest of apples.
In the case of low-winter-resistant plants, values below –27 ° C are considered as such a threshold, which means that the well-known varieties Spartan and Lobo should be planted only in the southern regions of Siberia or in central Russia.
This is a variety of late-ripening ripening, with high yields (up to 100 kg of apples from 1 medium tree) and excellent taste of the fruit. Harvesting begins no earlier than Octoberbut to improve the taste of apples, they must lie down until December.Spartan trees are represented by medium-sized plants (up to 5 m in height) with a rounded crown.Lateral branches are completely absent, and annual shoots are covered with a pronounced pubescence of dark brown or cherry color.
Dark green leaf plates are rounded, medium in size, with a middle base and a twisted end. The flowers have standard sizes and white-pink color, collected in compact inflorescences. Subsequently, light yellow roundish fruits with a slight blush are formed on the shoots, each weighing 150-200 g.
Their main feature is the presence of a bluish coating on the surface of the apple, due to which the fruit appears dark blue or even purple. The pulp is white, very juicy and crisp, with small red veins. The taste of apples is mostly sweet, but a slight sourness is still felt.
Another good representative of winter varieties with high productivity (350-380 kg of fruits are often removed from 1 plant), which only grows as the tree grows.
Apple trees of this variety are medium-sized (up to 5 m high), with a sparse high- or wide-round crown. Their shoots are flexible and curved, of medium thickness and slightly drooping.Leaf plates are oval, with short but thick petioles. For the most part, fruits are formed on gloves and fruit twigs, so apple trees will have to be rejuvenated regularly. The first crop can be harvested already in the 3rd or 4th year of cultivation, organizing the harvesting process towards the end of autumn.
All ripened fruits are dark raspberry colored, flat-rounded and medium in size, and a characteristic feature of apples is a clearly visible waxy coating on the surface of a thin peel. The pulp is sweet and very delicate, almost white in color, and its tasting score reaches 4.4–4.8 points.
As in the previous case, it is desirable to plant Lobo seedlings in the southern regions of Siberia, otherwise, in order to increase their resistance to low temperatures, it will be necessary to plant the variety in more frost-resistant varieties, for example, medium-sized Progress.
So, there are many varieties of apple trees that can be easily grown in the Siberian region and at the same time bring a sufficient fruit harvest. Gardeners can only choose the variety they like, always taking into account the recommended region of planting.