Apple-tree column-shaped Currency: characteristics, planting and care
A columnar apple-tree Currency is a welcome variety in the garden of any gardener, since its planting and care are not very expensive, fruiting is rich, and resistance to disease is at a high level. The article will tell about the characteristic features for the columnar variety, as well as about the features of its agricultural technology.
Currency - a productive variety of winter columnar apple trees. Such varieties have their own characteristics that must be considered when cultivating them.
Did you know? Heraldry positions the apple as a symbol of peace. The same fruit is also one of the signs of the monarch's power over the earth - the “sovereign apple” or “power”, which the monarch should have held in his left hand.
Origin of the variety
Apple tree is a young variety bred in 1986. Moscow specialists took part in the breeding and crossed elite colon-shaped varieties - KB6 and American OR38T17. The result of the crossing was a new hybrid with the Vf genome, which reliably protects the culture from scab and allows not to subject the trees to chemicals.
Description of the tree and fruits
Currency apples are semi-dwarf crops with the following characteristics:
- there is a small crown, somewhat compressed, which gives the colon-shaped apple tree decorativeness;
- mature trees reach a height of up to 2.8 m, and a diameter of up to 30 cm;
- there are leaves of a saturated green tint;
- there are medium fruits of a rounded shape, with thin skin and a white core, weighing up to 200 g;
- to taste apples are sweet and juicy, with a slight acidity and delicate aroma;
- the fruits ripen in mid-October;
- early crop - one-year-old seedling is able to produce fruits with the first vegetation, but a rich harvest can be expected only for 4 years (over 5 kg per plant);
- able to bear fruit no more than 15 years and are easily replaced by new trees;
- the culture has absolute immunity to disease;
- the fruits have a long shelf life, and they can be preserved and consumed raw;
- thanks to a decorative look will fit into any landscape landscape.
Did you know? For complete pollination of flowering columnar apple trees, gardeners resort to tricks: they spray each crop with sugar syrup, which attracts many bees to the trees.
Advantages and possible disadvantages
- Advantages of apple trees Currency are:
- quick adaptation to a new environment thanks to the dense roots of culture;
- early bearing
- stable yields;
- unpretentiousness of trees to a lack of moisture;
- high resistance to diseases and pests;
- due to the compactness of trees there is the possibility of comfortable processing
- high taste and marketability;
- long shelf life and good transportability;
- the possibility of growing for commercial purposes.
- Cons of culture are:
- yield decreasing over the years;
- medium level resistance to cold;
- in comparison with the rest of the colon-shaped species, the yield is at an average level.
Drought and frost resistance
Since the Currency apple tree is a winter variety, it is able to successfully tolerate moderate frosts (up to -38 ° C), without requiring additional preparations for cold weather. Such a temperature indicator is typical for regions with a temperate continental climate (middle zone of Russia).
At lower temperatures, the bark and crown of trees are destroyed, which leads to the death of plants. The apple trees of the described species are drought resistant. Plants do an excellent job in the dry season, as they can store moisture in rainy weather.Due to this, the bark and roots of the trees become strong and thickened.
Features of ripening and fruiting
The apple trees of this variety have their own ripening and yield characteristics. A full crop ripens at the age of 4. Fruiting in plants of the variety under discussion occurs in October.
The peculiarity of the Currency variety is that one colon-shaped domestic apple tree produces up to 5 kg of apples. Farms receive up to 100 t / ha, and with the use of fertilizers a yield increase of up to 10 kg from one crop or 150 t / ha is possible.
Although such an apple tree lives up to 50 years, after 15 years it decreases, and then productivity ceases altogether (due to the drying of the annuli located below the trunk), so the plants are uprooted and replaced with others.
To obtain a good and high-quality crop of columnar apple trees, it is necessary to organize the correct planting and care for them. This will help compliance with the necessary agricultural activities.
It is very important to choose a suitable landing site, taking into account the preferences of this culture.
To do this, take into account the following nuances:
- preferred landing site is on the south side;
- on a plot a flat place is best;
- the place should be illuminated by the sun on one side, and having partial shade on the other;
- it is undesirable to plant a crop on a site with blowing with strong winds;
- if no suitable place in the garden is found, greenhouses or hotbeds are used to plant colonized crops.
Preparing for planting
It is very important to prepare seedlings for planting.
To do this, you must:
- buy a tree from a trusted seller - this will reduce the risk of over-sorting;
- before purchasing, the seedling is inspected for its suitability;
- for planting, they acquire a 2-year-old seedling with roots of at least 10 cm;
- Before planting, it is necessary to cut off broken or too long roots, and in case of drying, they need to be soaked with water, placed in warm water for several hours.
The maximum yield of apple trees can be achieved if the seedlings are planted correctly.
Planting apple trees begins with the preparation of planting pits:
- A month before planting, dig holes at least 60 cm wide and 70 cm deep (sizes may depend on the volume of the root system of each tree + growth margin).
- Between apple trees, a distance of at least 3 m must be observed.
- Rows of trees should be located at a distance of at least 4 m from each other.
- The earth removed from the pits is mixed with 3 kg of organics, 80 g of potassium and 100 g of superphosphate.
- The earth mixture is poured into the pits in the form of a knoll, and after a month seedlings are planted (the earth will settle down well by this moment).
- In each pit, a stake is hammered to tie seedlings.
- Young trees with a spread root system are placed on the prepared mounds.
- The roots are covered with earth and slightly tamped.
- Each tree is tied to a stake with ropes.
- A trunk circle with a radius of about 70 cm is formed.
- Trees are watered, pouring at least 8 liters of water under each
After planting, the crop provides proper care.
Important! After each watering, the trees need loosening and mulching the earth: these procedures help to nourish the roots with oxygen and do not allow moisture to evaporate quickly, preventing the appearance of a crust on the surface of the trunk section.
Watering and feeding
Watering and fertilizer for young, columnar apple trees is very important, especially in the first year after planting. The soil under the apple trees must be constantly moist.
Water the culture as follows:
- In a dry summer, water at least 1 time in 3 days with plenty of water.
- It is important to moisten the aisles well.
- Plants finish watering in August, as they will be preparing for winter.
- Prior to the first frosts, wintering is necessary for humidification: up to 100 liters of water are poured under young trees in several receptions, up to 200 liters under adults.
Column-shaped apple trees are fed according to the following technology:
- From May to the end of the growing season every 20 days it is necessary to feed the trees with useful substances.
- For dense flowering and ovaries apply: organic top dressing in the form of slurry, consisting of water and cow or chicken droppings; it is permissible to replace organic matter with a nitrogen-containing purchased mixture (Urea, Ammonium Sulphate, according to the instructions) or potassium-phosphorus top dressing (Potassium Monophosphate) - up to 60 g of substance will be required per 1 m².
- In the fruiting phase, fertilizers (per 1 m² of barreled area) with nitroammophos (30 g), ammonium nitrate (30 g), superphosphate (140 g), potassium chloride (50 g) will be necessary.
- In order to stimulate winter hardiness in apple trees, in the beginning of autumn they need to be fed with mineral complex fertilizer, marked on the packaging with the inscription “Autumn”.
Important! When feeding apple trees with nitrogen fertilizers, care must be taken: such dressing is needed only at the initial stage of the growing season, because by autumn the overgrown trees will not have time to prepare for the winter cold and may freeze.
To protect the culture from diseases and parasites, spraying is allowed for prevention purposes.
It is necessary to act on the following technology:
- for prevention, the Currency variety is processed in early spring before sap flow begins, as well as in late autumn, after harvesting;
- during active growth 3 weeks before fruiting, all irrigation is stopped;
- for spraying use Bordeaux liquid or 3% solution of "Nitrafen" (300 ml per bucket of water);
- in spring, a urea solution is used for spraying (it will saturate the apple trees with nitrogen and destroy the parasites).
Removing lateral branches in young apple trees will help to avoid turning trees into ordinary dwarf crops. To get a classic column, lateral shoots must be removed annually in the spring before the sap flow begins.
Principles of trimming colon-shaped crops:
- In the first season, all bud buds are carefully plucked out (on a healthy tree they are abundantly formed throughout the trunk).
- For the first time, full pruning is carried out in the 1st year after a year of disembarkation. With proper planting, the top of the tree should grow up to 40 cm, and the plant itself will release side branches. Cut off all branches, leaving two buds each, of which new branches will form next year. The central shoot is not shortened to avoid excessive branching.
- The second pruning is done in the 2nd year. In each pair of branches one is left growing upward, since the fruits will be tied on it. The branch, which moves away from the column at a large angle, is shortened to 30 cm, and the column itself is not shortened.
- In the 3rd year, branches with last year's fruiting are cut. The remaining ones are cut off according to the scheme of the 2nd year.
- To maintain the desired density of the crown, it is necessary to cut thin and weak shoots each year, as well as the one that grows inwards or downwards.
- In subsequent years, branches that are 3 years old are removed.
- In the 6th year of life, if the central trunk extends over 2.5 m, it is cut off.
- Sometimes the apical kidney is damaged by frost, and in the spring several shoots can be beaten out of it. The strongest is chosen from them, and the rest are cut out.
Fig. 1 - The first year; Fig. 2 - The second year; Fig. 3 - Third year
Shelter for the winter, protection against rodents
Despite the fact that the Currency variety is considered winter-hardy, it still needs to be prepared for the winter. In regions with a very harsh climate, apple crops are planted in trenches for this purpose. Before the cold, sawdust, fallen leaves and snow fall into these trenches in these trenches.
In a temperate climate, there will be another method of sheltering apple trees: the root system is protected by mulching, and the tops of trees are covered with non-woven materials.Columns up to half the height are wrapped with roofing oil or spruce branches. This helps protect the plantings from hungry rodents that eat the bark.
Video: Shelter apple tree seedlings for the winter
Features of harvesting and storage of crops
After ripening, apples of the colony variety can remain on the trees for a long time. If you correctly and carefully harvest, the fruits can be saved without loss and for a long time to feast on them. The crop is stored in a cool basement almost all winter.
Important! When storing apples, one must take into account that these fruits are capable of producing ethylene, which affects the acceleration of ripening not only of the apples themselves, but also on the ripening of other fruit and vegetable products stored nearby.
Apple-trees Currency perfectly fit into a small garden area and decorate any flat landscape. Their unpretentiousness and generous fruit bearing with excellent taste qualities will please any gardener. Adhering to the above recommendations on agronomic colonial culture, after two or three years you will be able to harvest good crops, which are enough even for a large family.