Chemical composition, nutritional value and calorie content of apples
Apple trees are spread all over the world and have a huge number of varieties, slightly different from each other in color, taste and sweetness. The energy value of their fruits varies depending on how much they have ripened and gained sugars, the method of preparation. Consider how the caloric value and glycemic index change depending on the color of the apples, the degree of processing, how the fruits are useful and what contraindications exist.
Useful properties of apples for the human body
Apples is a very affordable product, which, moreover, is very useful. It contains many useful elements that have a beneficial effect on the human body as a whole.
- Consider the health benefits of these wonderful fruits:
- Beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. The antioxidants in the composition reduce the oxidative processes of lipids in the blood. Regular consumption of this product prevents the appearance of angina pectoris and heart attacks.
- Reduce the level of bad cholesterol in the blood. When eating two fruits every day, you can lower the cholesterol content by 15–16%.
- They have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties - due to the presence of flavonoids. Therefore, it is useful to consume at least 2 pieces per week for asthmatics, as well as for colds.
- Positive effect on intestinal flora, improve digestion. Increase appetite.
- Help in the fight against excess weight. Therefore, this product is included in many diets.
- They have a diuretic effect, which helps to eliminate toxins and harmful substances from the body.
- They improve women's well-being during menopause due to flavonoids and polyphenols.
- Useful for tooth enamel and bone, and organic acids cleanse teeth from plaque and cause a rush of blood to the gums.
- They help normalize blood pressure.
- Do not cause allergies (except red varieties).
- Positive effect on the skin, give a healthy complexion.
- Indispensable for the prevention of cancer. Regular consumption of this fruit in food reduces the appearance of oncological formations by almost 2 times. This is especially true for cancer of the colon, lung, breast and liver.
Apples are useful in raw as well as baked form. During heat treatment, they retain the bulk of the nutrients. You need to eat fruit with a peel, since in it the concentration of antioxidants and other beneficial substances is much higher than in the pulp. In addition, in it, there is ursolic acid, which is absent in the pulp. This substance is an excellent prophylactic of oncological manifestations. If you do not have an apple tree in your garden, then it is best to buy seasonal fruits of domestic origin.
Did you know? At Cornell University, it was found that in rats eating 1 apple a day, the likelihood of developing breast cancer decreased by 17%. In individuals who consumed 3 fruits per day, the risk decreased by 39%, and when consumed 6 pieces, the value was 44%.
Chemical and vitamin composition of apples
Fresh fruits are most useful since they contain the most vitamins. In 100 g of such an apple is 47 kcal.
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In the mineral composition, potassium is the leader in quantity.Also present is calcium, silicon, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine. An apple is rich in trace elements important to humans - iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, chromium. It contains selenium, iodine, fluorine, zinc.
In addition, the fruits of apple trees contain pectins and flavonoids with antioxidant activity, essential oils, tannins.
Important! TheirIt is most useful to eat apples with a peel, since the concentration of nutrients in it and in the subcutaneous layer of pulp is the highest; This is done in order to minimize the intake of harmful substances by the fruit for better storage.
Calorie content of different types of apples
Apples perfectly retain their usefulness in dried form and after heat treatment. Depending on the color and preparation, they may have a different number of calories.
How many calories in a green, red and yellow apple
The calorie content of different varieties is different, but not significant. So, in green sour-sweet varieties of carbohydrates no more than 7–8% and in 100 g are 35–45 kcal.
The calorie content in one low-calorie (35 kcal / 100 g) green apple will depend on its size:
- with a diameter of 5 cm, weight 1 pc. 90 g - 31.5 kcal;
- with a diameter of 6.5 cm, weight 1 pc. 130 g - 45.5 kcal;
- with a diameter of 7.5 cm, weight 1 pc. 200 g - 70 kcal.
Red, well-ripened sweet fruits have a higher carbohydrate content (11–15%), and already 100–50 kcal are in 100 g.
The calorie content of a sweet apple (50 kcal / 100 g) of red varieties will be:
- with a diameter of 5 cm, weight 1 pc. 90 g - 45 kcal;
- with a diameter of 6.5 cm, weight 1 pc. 130 g - 65 kcal;
- with a diameter of 7.5 cm, weight 1 pc. 200 g - 100 kcal.
In yellow varieties, calorie content varies depending on their sweetness. 100 g may contain from 40 to 50 kcal.
One apple of medium sweet variety (45 kcal / 100 g) of this color will have the following calorie content:
- with a diameter of 5 cm, weight 1 pc. 90 g - 40.5 kcal;
- with a diameter of 6.5 cm, weight 1 pc. 130 g - 58.5 kcal;
- with a diameter of 7.5 cm, weight 1 pc. 200 g - 90 kcal.
Did you know? There are varieties that accumulate a lot of sugars and gain more calories. For example, the red Fuji apple variety in 100 g has 63–71 kcal, the Red Delicious is 59 kcal, and the green Granny Smith and yellow Golden are 58 kcal.
Calorie baked apple
When baking, the fruits lose moisture, and the concentration of carbohydrates and other substances increases, which means that the calorie content of the resulting product increases. In 100 g of baked fruit can be from 70 to 100 kcal. The green apple, from which the peel was peeled and baked in the microwave, will have 56 kcal / 100 g. Of course, a baked large copy will contain more calories than a small one.
If the baked fruits were stuffed with dried fruits, cottage cheese, rice, sprinkled with sugar or greased with honey, then their calorie content will be significantly higher. Such an apple stuffed with nuts (hazelnuts, walnuts or cashews) and prunes, sprinkled with sugar and decorated with whipped cream, can be equated to cakes in calories.
In dried apple
100 g of dried product has an average of 253 kcal. Since about 10 kg of drying is obtained from 10 kg of any apples, it is easy to calculate that 26.4 g of dried fruit will be obtained from one medium specimen weighing 176 g, in which approximately 67 kcal will be present.
In soaked fruit
For urination, they usually use well-ripened fruits of winter varieties of small size. The resulting product is perfectly stored in the cellars until the beginning of summer, preserving vitamins. 100 g of this product contains less kcal than 34–49 kcal in fresh fruits, depending on the sweetness of the fruits used.
In apple juice and compote
Apple juice (freshly squeezed or canned, without added sugar) on average will contain 47 kcal. Moreover, the juice squeezed from the fruits of the variety Renet Simirenko will be less caloric than from the fruits of the apple tree variety Granny Smith - 40 kcal versus 53 kcal.
Did you know? Studies have shown that consumption of apple juice every day reduces the frequency of wheezing in children age 5–10 years.
Apple compote will contain more calories, as it is cooked with added sugar and contains 85 kcal.
What determines the glycemic index and calorie content of an apple per 100 grams
Apples have a fairly low glycemic index - only 30 GI per 100 g. For example, a watermelon has 72 GI. Thus, apple fruits are more slowly absorbed, which is very good for losing weight.
Important! Sweet varieties are not recommended for consumption in diabetes mellitus, and acidic varieties for acidity and gastrointestinal problems.
It should be noted that the level of GI in apple fruits depends on the following factors:
- varieties of apple trees;
- maturity and harvest time;
- storage conditions and duration;
- climatic conditions for the growth of apple trees (the farther south, the fruits are sweeter);
- soil structure and specifics of fertilizing;
- depending on the heat treatment of the fruit - in raw, baked or boiled form;
- from research methodology.
From the table of glycemic product indices, GI values for apples were selected depending on certain factors.
Possible contraindications for eating apples
Contraindications are possible when eating fresh apples.. Especially they should be taken into account by those who adhere to the apple diet in order to lose weight. So, coarse fiber and acids that are in this product can provoke an exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenal ulcers, pancreatitis and cholecystitis). In acute forms of the disease, fresh fruits are excluded from the menu. Baked fruits no longer have such contraindications, and they can be eaten even with exacerbation of gastrointestinal ailments.
When using apples with the peel, care must be taken. For longer storage and a good presentation, suppliers treat the skin with chemicals and wax-like substances that adversely affect the human body. Therefore, it is better to remove the skin of store fruits with a knife. It is better for nursing mothers and young children to dwell on green varieties of apple culture and juices from them - such a product is the least allergenic.
Fruit seeds contain amygdalin, which consists of glucose and hydrogen cyanide. The ingestion of the last component into the human body causes the synthesis of hydrocyanic acid, which is toxic to humans in certain doses.
Important! A person can eat no more than 5-6 pieces of apple seeds per day. They have a daily rate of iodine, so nutritionists allow the consumption of so many apple seeds.
A decent amount of sugar is found in dried fruits, so diabetics should use them with caution. In addition, sweet drying can negatively affect the teeth (in the presence of caries), and sticky particles of dried fruit remain for a long time between the teeth, causing the growth of bacteria. Inappropriate consumption of drying can provoke excess weight gain or cause diarrhea.
Apples contain many useful substances and preserve them during heat treatment and in the process of pickling. However, calorie content and glycemic index may change. These indicators differ slightly among different varieties of fresh apple fruits.